FIG. 60A.-Ancient Briton "Tascio" coin inscribed DIAS.
(After Poste, and cp. Figs. A, B, p. xv.)
Disclosing his identity with Phoenician Archangel "Tazs," "Taks,"
"Dashap-Mikal," and "Thiazi," "Mikli"
of Goths, "Daxa" of Vedas, and widespread
worship in Early
"O Son Tas1 Lord of the World!
Mighty hero supreme, who subjugates
hostility . . .
Gladdener of Corn, Creator of Wheat
Renewer of the Herb . . .
Director of the Spirits [Angels] of Heaven.
Thou madest the tablets of Destiny."
"Bearer of the Spear of the hero."-
"The Great Messenger, the pure one of Ia,"-Ib.3
"O Dashap-Mikal bless us!"
WE have already found that the tutelary Tas or Dias of the Sumerians or Early Phoenicians, also called "Son Tas or Dach" ("Mero-Dach"), "The first-born Son of God Ia" (Jahveh, Jove or Indara), was the archangel messenger
1 "Mero-dash" is the corrupt Hebrew form of this
2 S.H.L., 537.
3 Ib., 480, 517.
4 C.I.S. references p. 341.
p.339: HITTITE ANGEL TASHUB ON BRITON COINS
of Ia, and that he was
freely invoked and figured upon sacred seals and amulets by the Sumerians,
Hittites, Trojans, and Phoenicians, just as we discovered that he was invoked
in the prehistoric cup-mark inscriptions in
FIG. 61.-"Tascio" or "Tascif" of Early Briton Coins is Corn Spirit "Tas" or "Tash-ub" of Hitto-Sumerians.
(Coins after Evans).2
NOTE.-Corn "Crosses" of Indara or Andrew X type in c and d, and pellet or "cup" Crosses
in b, with head and beard as in archaic Hittite rock sculpture of Tash-ub in Fig. 62.
We now find further that Tas is hailed as "The Gladdener of Corn, Creator of Wheat and Barley," as cited in the heading. This discovers his identity with the Corn Spirit of the Greeks, "Dionysos"- which name, indeed, of hitherto unknown origin and meaning, we now find was
1 As Dias, see Figs. A and
B, page xv.
2 a E.C.B., Pl. 8, 12; b, Ib., 6, 3; c Ib, 5, 8; d Ib., 14, 9.
p.340: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
apparently applied to Tas in Sumerian; thus discovering the Sumerian origin of Dionysos in both name, function and representations. This also explains for the first time why Corn and Barley are so frequently figured on the "Tascio" coins of the Ancient Britons, and along with Tascio on Phoenician coins, and why the popular Hittite divinity "Tash-ub" or "Tash-of-the-Plough" is figured holding stalks of Corn on the Hitto-Sumer seals, and as a gigantic warrior clad in Gothic dress holding Corn stalks and bunches
FIG. 62.-Tascio as "Tash-ub," the Hittite or Early Gothic Corn-Spirit. From archaic Hittite rock-sculpture at Ivriz in Taurus.
(After von Luschan and Wilson.)
NOTE.-He is dressed as a Goth, with snow-boots, and Goat-horns on his conical Trojan or Phrygian cap, and he carries stalks of Barley-corn and bunches of Grapes, and behind him is a Plough. The adoring high-priest has solar swastikas, in key pattern, embroidered on his dress.
of Grapes beside a Plough, in the archaic Hittite
rock sculpture in the
Moreover, we find that Tascio is the Hitto-Phoenician original of St. Michael the
p.341: TASCIO IS PHOENICIAN ST. MICHAEL
representation. The later Phoenicians, calling him "Dashup"1 occasionally add the title "Mikal" in invoking his blessing2; and this name also appears, I find, upon the Phoenician coins of Cilicia of the fifth century along with the figure of Taxi in Phoenician script as "Miklu" (see Fig. 66); and as "Mekigal" in the Sumerian name for the old Harvest festival corresponding to Michael-mas.
And we shall find that the Hitto-Sumerian cult of Michael the Archangel, introduced by the Phoenicians, was widespread over Ancient Britain in the Phoenician period, from the Phoenician tin-port of St. Michael's Mount in the south to the two "St. Michael's Wells" near our Phoenician inscriptions in the Don Valley in the north, and in the name of other early churches and wells dedicated to St. Michael still further north. Vestiges of this cult of St. Michael the Archangel, as the Corn Spirit, introduced into Britain by the Phoenicians, are now seen to survive to the present day in the name of "Michaelmas" for the Harvest Festival (September 29th) in Britain, in association with his sacred sacramental Sun-Goose, (see Fig. 66), the "Michaelmas Goose" of that festival:-
September, September, when by Custom, right Divine,
Geese are ordain'd to bleed at Michael's shrine."4
and in the "St. Michael's Bannock or Cake" of the Michaelmas festival in the Western Isles of Scotland."5
The notion of investing God with an archangel appears to have arisen long after the Aryans had "created" the idea
1 See below. The D and R are
often identical in Phoenician.
2 C. I. S., 90, 2; 91, 2; 935; 94, 5; and pp. 1, 94-99, 105, etc.
3 The Goose was sacred taboo in Ancient Britain, D.B.G., 5, 12, 6.
4 King's Art of Cookery, 63, H.F.F., 409.
5 Martin, describing the Protestant inhabitants of Skye, writes, "They observe the festivals of Christmas [Yule], Easter, Good Friday and that of St. Michael. Upon the latter day they have a cavalcade in each parish, and several families bake the cake, called 'St. Michael's Bannock.'" W. Islands of
p.342: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
of God in the image of man as "The
Father-god," and after they had given him a host of angels to counteract the
swarms of malignant demons with which primeval man and the Chaldean
Mother-Son cult had infested the earth, air and "the waters under the
earth." The process by which the archangel was invented and his
functions arranged and developed now seems to become evident. The Father-god or
"Bel" was early
given by the Aryans the title of "Zagg" or
"Sagg"1 (or "Zeus"), as it exists on the earliest known historical document, Udug's trophy Stone-Bowl from the oldest Sun-temple in
This early Aryan name for God, about two millennium before the birth of Abraham, with its sense of fixity, is soon afterwards found spelt by the Early Sumerians in their still-existing inscriptions as Zax or Zakh, in the form "The Enthroned Zax or Zakh" (En-Zax),2 with the meaning "The Enthroned Breath or Wind."3 This presumably was to denote God as The Breath of Life, and perhaps also his invisibility as a Spirit. This ancient Aryan idea of God as "The Breath of Life" is preserved in the reference in Genesis to the creation of man: "God breathed into his nostrils the Breath of Life and man became a living soul."4 And in the Old Testament, God "flies on the wings of the Wind,"5 and in the New Testament the working of God's Spirit is compared to the Wind.6 Such slight alterations in the spelling of divine and other proper names in order to denote a different though correlated sense, were often made by the Sumerians, and are parallel to their spelling of "Induru" as "Indara," with a different shade of meaning.
This idea of the "enthronement" and fixity of The Father-god in human form in heaven, with its sense of vast remoteness and aloofness from the earth, was presumably
1. Spelt alphabetically, Za-ga-ga, see before.
3. Br., 5932.
4. Genesis, 2, 7.
5. Psalm xviii, 10, etc.
6. John iii, 8.
p.343: ORIGIN OF MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL
the reason why the Sumerians, in their human craving for the more immediate presence of God on the earth, delegated his powers on earth to a deputy in the person of "The firstborn Son of Ia," the Archangel "Tas" or Taxi (hero-Dach or Mar-Duk), who ultimately was made in Babylonia to overshadow his Father and was given most of the titles of the latter-not only "King of Heaven and Earth," "Lord of the Lands," "Creator," and "Holder of the Tablets of Fate," but even "Slayer of the Dragon of Darkness," which achievement thus became credited to him as St. Michael.1 And the later Chaldean polytheists made him king of their motley pantheon, amongst whom the various departments of Nature were parcelled out, and they even also called him "Bel" or Father-god.
But amongst the purer Hitto-Sumerians and Phoenicians, adhering to monotheism and its "Sun-worship," Tas appears to have retained his original character of the archangel of The One God, although he is addressed as a "god," which also has the general sense of "divinity." Thus in many of the Sumerian psalms and litanies he is the mere agent on the earth of the Father-god who is enthroned in heaven. He is "The great Messenger, the pure one of Ia,"2 "Companion of Heaven and Ia,"3 "The Merciful One who loveth to give Life to the Dead,"4 "Lord of Life and Protector of Habitations,"5 and "Ever ready to hear the Prayers of mankind," he transmits these to his Father, The Enthroned Zax (Zeus) in heaven and carries out the orders of the latter. And we have such scenes pictured in Hittite seal, e.g., Fig. 63, which shows a sick man on his bed attacked by the Dragon of Death, and he appeals to Tas, who in turn intercedes with his Father-god Indara.
Thus we read in the old Sumerian psalms and litanies such invocations and incidents as the following:-
"May thou, Son Tas, the Great Overseer of the Spirits of Heaven, exalt thy head!6
"(To) the Corn-god I have offered! . . ."
alone killed the Dragon without aid of "Maruta" (Marduk). RV. 1, 165, 6.
2. S.H.L., 517.
3. Ib., 501.
4. Ib., 501.
5. Langdon, S.P., 277.
6. S.H.L., 517.
p.344: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
"May the god of Herbs, the Assembler of God and man
Deliver such and such a man, the son of his God, And may he be saved!"1
FIG. 63.-Archangel Tas interceding with God Indara for sick man attacked by Dragon of Death. From Hittite Seal of about 2,500 B.C.
Note bed of sick man, and sacred Goat of Indara; and cp. Psalm xxxiv, 6-7.
The circles (cups) above man = Muru or "Amorite"; and
Then the archangel Tas, hearing this prayer, repairs to his Father in Heaven, "The Good Shepherd who rests not, who causeth mankind to abide in safety;"3 and presents the prayer:
"The Son Tas has regarded him [the supplicant].
To his Father Ia, into the house he descends4 and says
'O my Father, the Evil Curse like a demon has fallen on the man!'
Ia to his son made answer . . .
'Go my son, Son Tas!
Take the man to the House of Pure Sprinkling,
And remove his ban, and expel his ban.'"5
Or Ia or Indara replies:-
"O Son Tas, substance of mine, Go, my Son!
Before the [Cross of the ?] Sun-god take his [the afflicted's] hand,
Repeat the spell of the pure hymn!
Pour the (cleansing) Waters upon his head!"6
Or:-"Go, my Son Tas!
Let the Fire [-Cross ?] of the Cedar tree,
The tree that destroys the wickedness of the incubus,
1. S.H.L., 468.
2. D.C.O.(L) pl. 82. 406.
3. L.S.P., 245.
4. Here "descends" is used, when Ia or Indara is supposed to reside in the Waters.
5. S.H.L., 472.
6. Ib., 516.
p.345: TAS-MIKAL THE ARYAN CORN-SPIRIT
On whose core the name of Ia is recorded,
With the spell supreme . . . to foundation and roof let ascend
And to the sick man never may those seven demons approach!"1
Thus in these psalms "The Enthroned Zax" is hailed:-
"Lord of the Harvest Lands, Lord of the Grain Lands!
Husbandman who tends the fields art thou, O Zax the Enthroned!2
"Tender of the plants of the Garden art thou!
Tender of the Grain Fields art thou!"3
"Father Zax, the presents of the Ground are offered to they in sacrifice!
O Lord of
, figs to thy dwelling-place we bring! Sumer
To give Life to the Ground thou dost exist!
Father Zax, accept the sacred offerings!"4
It is easy to see now, in the light of our discoveries, why the Early Aryans or Hitto-Sumerians, Khatti or Catti Goths were naturally led to institute a patron saint or Archangel of Agriculture and The Plough. They were, I find, the founders of the Agricultural Stage of the World's Civilization, and made Agriculture the basis of their Higher Civilization and the Settled Life-and it still remains the basis of the Higher Civilization to the present day. They also took from it their title of "Arri"-or "Arya" (Englished into "Arya-n")-which, I find, is derived from the Sumerian Ar, "a Plough" (which thus discloses the Sumerian origin of the Old English "to Ear (i.e., plough) the ground," Gothic Arian, Greek Aroein, Latin Ar-are). And they made ploughing and sowing sacred rites under the Sun Cross, as we have seen in the Cassi seal of about 1350 B.C. (see Fig. 12, p. 49) and the same scene is figured on seals of the fourth millennium B.C. In establishing Agriculture, the Aryans, as a small band of civilized pioneers,
1. S.H.L., 470.
2. L.S.P., 199, 201.
3. Ib., 277.
4. Ib., 279.
p.346: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
FIG. 64.-Archangel Tas-Mikal defending Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" with Cross and Sun emblems on Greco-Phoenician coins.
(From Cilician coins of 5th century B.C. onwards in
Note Goat springing to Cross (a-b) and Crosses (a-e), legends
a One of the oldest Cilician
coins of "Early Fifth Century, B.C.," supposed to be from Celenderis, sea-port (founded by Phoenicians), W. of
b Reverse with stamped Cross.
c Celenderis coin of about 450-400 B.C. (H.C.C., 9, 2) shows Hercules-Tascio descending from his Sun-horse to defend Goat (on reverse, d). Note Cross on his back, formed by circles, as in Briton coins and Hitto-Sumerian seals, and his club in right hand.
d Reverse of c, with Goat kneeling before Cross, behind rock, and adoring or invoking Cross in sky; representing Hercules-Tascio as messenger of Sun-god. Other analogous coins, H.C.C., 9, 1 and 3-9; 13-16; and 10, 1-5, etc.
e Hercules as "Lord of Tarsus" on coins of Tarsus of period of Mazaeus, 361-333 B.C. (H.C.C., 30, 6), bearing Phoenician legend, "Bal TKZ" or Lord Tahz (see text). Hercules-Takz seated on throne above a Goat's head and handled Cross, and bearing in left hand the Cross; as standard with fruited stalk; and in right bestows grapes, reaping sickle and ear of Corn (= Dionysos).
f Reverse of e. Stag (kin of Goat) attacked by Lion--which was killed by Hercules. Other variant coins of this type, H.C.C., 30, 1-5, 7, 8, and numerous Hitto-Sumerian and Cypro-Phoenician cylinders, etc. (see later).
g Coin supposed to be from Aigea (modern Ayas), port to E. of Tarsus, of period of Macrinus, 217-218 A.D. (H.C.C., q, 9). Showing bust of young Dionysos with bunch of grapes, and behind, his name. DZC, i.e., equivalent of "Tasc" or "Dias" of Briton coins. Very numerous coins of this type with legend DZC (see text).
h Another Aigea coin of same period (H.C.C., 4, 11), showing long-maned mountain Goat, standing before branch or stalk of corn, and bearing on top of his horns two Fire-torches (or sacred Fire of the Sun cult) and legend DZC (i.e., "Tasc") as before.
p.347: TAS-MIKAL DEFENDING GOATS AS GOTHS
had to defend themselves and their fields by force of arms against the depredations and bitter religious hostility of a world of hungry savage nomadic hordes of Serpent- and
FIG. 65.-Archangel Tas defending Goats ("Goths") with Cross and Sun emblems on Early Briton coins.
(After Evans and Stukeley.)
Note Goats with Cross and Sun signs by circles, as in Greco-Phoenician on opposite page and legends Tas, Tasciio.
a Long-maned Goat coin (E.B.C., G. 4) as in Cilician coin, Fig. 64 h, and in Hittite seals (Fig. 59, etc.) with Sun-circles. Obverse bears a Hercules head generally similar to b; with a Sun circle rosette as in Cilician coin, Fig. 64 a, etc. It is essentially a copy of the latter archaic Cilician coin with springing goat and Sun-circles.
b Obverse of similar type of coin (E.B.C., 8, 2) with head of Hercules bearded in style of Hittite rock-sculpture (Fig. 62). Its legend is read "VER" by Evans, as place of mintage of Verulam (St. Albans), the capital of Cassi-vellaunus; but it may read "HER" = "Hercules."
c Reverse of b (of similar type to a and Cilician Fig. 64 a), showing Cross and rayed Sun behind and above Goat, also circle pelleted Cross on body of Goat identical with that on body of Hercules on Cilician coins, Fig. 64 c.
d Winged Goat on obverse of coin stamped "Tasc" (E.B.C., 6, 1). The winged Goat is not infrequent in Hitto-Sumer seals and Cilician coins.
e E.B.C., 11, 5 Cunobelin coin = Winged Tascio or "Resef Mikel" or St. Michael bestowing wreath or fruited Sun. Cp. Cilician coin, Fig. 64 e.
f E.B.C., 10, 12 and 13. Goat nourished by Hercules as "Tasciio." For Goats fed by hand of Tax or Tascio in Hitto-Sumerian seals, see W.S.C., 380, 387, etc.
g E.B.C., 5, 10-12. "Tas" or "Tasc," with "Celtic" and St. Andrew's Crosses and spear, galloping to rescue Goats (Goths). On obverse, Corn Cross in form of St. Andrew's Cross, with Sun discs. For other Corn Crosses of Tax, the Corn Spirit, see former figures.
h S.C.B., Pl. 8, 2, etc.
p.348: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
Devil-worshipping aborigines. They achieved their success through the leadership of the great warrior Aryan king, the second king of the First Aryan Dynasty of the traditional lists, who was, I find, the inventor of the Plough and establisher of Agriculture.1 Later, the Aryans gratefully apotheosized him and made him their patron saint and the prototype of the Archangel of their Sun-cult, and represented him armed as a warrior, and he is thus the human original of the Archangel Taxi or Tas, the "Tash-ub" or "Tash of the Plough" of the Hittites, the Tascio of the Briton coins and monuments, and St. Michael the Archangel of the Gentiles who, under his Father, fought against and overcame "the Dragon, the Old Serpent, and his angels," who warred against "the Sons of God"-a favourite title of the Aryans, appearing in early Sumerian inscriptions, and reflected in Genesis.
We now discover why the Archangel Tas or Taxi was invoked in the prehistoric "cup-mark" inscriptions of the Early Britons, and was so freely figured on the great majority of the very numerous mintages of coins of the Early Britons or Catti, many of which bear his name stamped thereon as "Tasc, Tascio, Tascia, Taxci, Tcvi," etc. (see Figs. 61, etc.), along with ears of Corn and Sun Crosses, both the erect True Cross and the X "Cross" or Hammer of his Father "Andrew" or Indara, and as Grain-Crosses, and as defending the Goats or Deer symbolizing the "Goths" or Catti Aryans, and figured in the same conventional manner on the Briton coins as he is represented on the sacred seals of the Catti or Khatti Hitto-Sumerians and on the coins of the Phoenicians (compare Figs. 64 and 65 for some of these identities).
We also now see why Tas, as the archangel of the Sun-cult and St. Michael, is figured on the Early Briton coins and prehistoric and pre-Christian monuments often with wings, and often accompanied by the Sun Hawk or Eagle, or the Sun Goose (Michaelmas Goose), or Phoenix of the Phoenicians, as well as with the Sun Horse often winged, and the Sun disc, and all in more or less identical form with the conventional
1 Details in my Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.
p.349: PHOENICIAN ST. MICHAEL ON BRITON COINS
representations of "Tas"-Michael on the Hittite sacred seals and on the Phoenician
FIG. 66.-Taxi as "Michael" the Archangel bearing rayed "Celtic" Cross, with Corn, Sun Goose or Phoenix on Phoenician Coins of Cilicia of fifth century B.C.
(Coins after Hill.)1
Note in a the Phoenician legend MKLU or "Mikalu"; and in c Phoenix Sun-bird before Fire-altar, with bearded Corn and two-barred handled Cross.
FIG. 67.-Tascio or St. Michael the Archangel on Early Briton pre-Christian Coins.
(Coins after Evans.)2
Note in a the fruited Sun-disc, bearing 12 pairs of fruit, corresponding to the months of the year. In b "Tcvi" with head of Dionysos (cp. Fig. 64). c Winged Michael with club of Erakles and legend "ER." d "Tascia" Sun Hawk with two strokes = "Sun." e Winged Sun Horse tied to Sun, over three "cup-marks" = Earth, or Death (vanquisher of).
1 a-b, H.C.C., Pl. 16, 13; in a MKLU in Phoenician Script, in b MAGR, presumably for Magarsus, ancient seaport at mouth of Pyrenees in Cilicia. c Ib., Pl. 16, 12.2 a E.C.B., Pl. 3, 11. b-c, Ib., 3, 14. d Ib., Pl. 6, 7. f Ib., 8, 14. Sun bearing Eagle transfixes the Serpent of the Deep and of Death.
p.350: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
FIG. 68.-Phoenix Sun-Bird of Tascio with Crosses and Sun-discs, from
(After Simpson, Stuart and Evans.)3
Note lozenge-lined Cross of Hittite and Trojan pattern. Cp. Figs. 44 and 46.
The Ancient Egyptians called their Harvest god "Makhi-al" (or Makhi-ar),4 and named that month after him, the "Mekir" of the Copts for that Harvest month, and also the god of the Harvest.5 Now this is practically his identical name, as current amongst the Hittites about 2400 B.C., where we find it spelt "Ma-khu-air"6 and he also had a month called after
in Egyptian = "Food," B.E.D., 433 and Resi = "Corn," 431.
2 B.G.E., 2, 282.
3 S.A.S., Pl. 342 and cp. S.S.S., 2, Illust. Pl. 33, 1. b S.A.S., Pl. 35, 2. c E.C.B., 8, 1.
4 Cp. B.E.D., 286a, l and r have the same letter-sign in
5 Ib., 2862, and cp. B.G.E., 293. His harvest month was the sixth month of the Egyptian calendar.
6 Sayce, Cappadocian Cuneiform Tablets from Kara Eyuk,
p.351: MICHAEL AS HARVEST SPIRIT
him.1 He was also known to the Egyptians as "The Harvest god Makh-unna,"2 or "Makh of the Food-Stuff of Life," and also with an alternative spelling as "Makh of the Red Cross";3 for significantly this Cross is painted red in the Egyptian tombs, and is described as "The Devouring Fire,"4 i.e., The Fiery Cross of the Sun.
This now explains the Egyptian references to this Red Cross as giving also the meaning "eat" (of food), an association which has hitherto puzzled Egyptologists,5 but is now seen to be the association of St. Michael or Tash-ub (or Rasep-Mikal) with the Harvest, as Corn Spirit in the cult of the Cross.
In Ancient Mesopotamia the fuller and apparently original form of his "Michael" name is found as "Me-ki-gal " about 2400 B.C. It is applied to the great Harvest Festival and Harvest month called "The Barley Harvest Cutting" - Se-kin-kud, in which Se, the Akkadian Zeru, or "Seed grain" is disclosed as the source of our word "Seed" and "Ceres," and Kud or "cut" as the Sumerian source of our English word "cut."
So important was the Corn or Barley in the economy of the Sumerians that they latterly made that month of Mekigal or the Barley Harvest the first month of their Agricultural year and the month of their chief festivities, although still retaining the solar year in the background.6 Now the meaning of this name of the Archangel Me-ki-gal, as defined in the Sumerian, is of immense importance for the history of religion. It is defined as "The Door of the Place of Calling in Prayer"7 or "The Door of Heaven."8 Thus the Aryan Archangel. Michael is called as intercessor between Earth and Heaven, "The Door of Heaven," which thus accounts for the great popularity of his worship, and his title of "Saviour,"9 and explains why the Phoenician votive
Rev. Assyriologique, 1911, 8, 3, 2 a, 9 and b 13.
2 Cp. hieroglyphs B.E.D. 319b.
3 Ib., 319b.
4 G.H., pp. 37 and 67 and P.L. 6, Fig. 78.
5 Ib., 37 and 67.
6 H.E.R., 3, 73, etc., and Langdon, Archives of Drehem, 1911, 15, etc.
7 For the Sumerian written signs of the name, see Langdon (above) tablets Nos. 24, 37, 43, etc., etc.
8 On "Door" word-sign, see B.B.W. No. 87, and on Me as "Heaven," see ib. 2, p. 239.
9 See above.
p.352: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
inscriptions to Bel invoke "the blessings" of "Resef Mikel" or "Mikel of the Food-Corn."
The foregoing Egyptian abbreviated forms of the name "Michael" as Makh and Makhu, etc.,1 are interesting as having parallels in the Sumerian, Syriac, Sanskrit and Gothic. Even the Hebrew form "Micha-el," which has been adopted as the English form of his name, has been generally regarded as having for its final syllable the Semitic el or "god," which thus gives the proper name as "Micha." In Syriac charms St. Michael, as the protector of the grain crops against damage, is invoked as "Miki, Mki-ki."2 In the Gothic Eddas he is Mick, Moeg, Mag-na and Mikli, son of Thor.
[In the Vedas, "Magha-van" or "Winner of Bounty (Magha)," a title of the Sun-god Indra and of some of his devotees; and the Vedic month Magha is the chief Harvest month and the month of great festival. He also seems to be the Mash divinity of the Amorites and Babylonians, who was a "Son of the Sun-god,"3 and the bearer, as we have seen, of the "Mash" or "Mace" as the Red Cross.]
This identity of Tas or Tas-Mikal,
under these slightly variant spellings, in
His Goat relationship is celebrated in the Sumerian
1 Other Egyptian spellings
of his name are Makhi, a seasonal god (B.E.D., 275b)
and Makhi, god of Fire altar (ib.,
2 H. Gollancz, Syriac Charms, lxxxii.
3 See Clay, Empire of Amorites, 179. "Mash" is an interchangeable title of the reflex solar divinity whose name is usually conjecturally rendered "Ninib" and "Uras" (ib., 179), whose Hittite shrine in
p.353: TAS, TAX OR
DIAS IN VEDAS,
litanies, where he is hailed as "Divine leader, the He-Goat"1 (Indara); and as the protector of "the Goatwan"2 (i.e., Goth).
FIG. 69.-Tascio in Egypt as "Resef," or Corn-Spirit.
Note his Goat's head chaplet and handled Cross-of-Life, and Spear.
FIG. 70.-Tascio or Taxi as "Daxa," Vedic Hindu Creator-god.
Note his Goat's head, and standing in field of Food-Crops and giving his blessing.
The spelling of the name "Tascio" on Briton coins is also parallel in its variations to the variations in the Hitto-Sumerian and Sanskrit and in the Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician coins.
Thus in Briton coins the name is spelt Tas, Tasc, Tasci, Tascio, Tascia,5 Taxci,6 Tcvi, Tascif,7 Tascf,8 Tasciovan, Tasciovani, Tigiio,9 Dias,10 Deas, Deascio.11 In Sumerian Taxi, Takhi or Dias, also Ta-xu,12 Tas, Tuk or Duk. In Hittite
C.I.W.A., 2, 55, 31f. and S.H.L., 284, 446; cp. M.D.,
2 cp. S.H.L., 447. Sigga-ni + "man," and Sigga = "Goat."
3 Hindu Mythology, 309.
4 C.I.S., 1, 38.
5 See Fig. 67.
6 E.C.B., 5, 9.
7 See Fig. 62.
8 E.C.B., Pl. 10, 7.
9 Ib., 17, 3.
10 Figs. A and B.
11 Brit. Num. Jour., 1912. P. Curlyon-Britton, 1-7.
p.354: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
Tash-ub (or "Tash of Plough"), Teisbas
or Dhuspuas in. Van inscriptions and Su-Tax or Su-Takh (or "Tax the Sower"); and he is the "Dagon" of the
Philistines. In Indian Vedas Tvashtr (or "Taks") and Daxa or Daksha for solar Creative gods of food and animals, of whom
the first fashions the bolt of Indra, creates the
Horse, so frequently associated with Tas in the later
period, has the food and wine of the gods, and bowl of wealth and confers
blessings. On the Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician
And significantly the name "Tasc" still survives in the Scottish Task for "Angel or Spirit."3 And he is presumably the "Thiazi" or Ty giant warrior assistant of Thor in the Gothic Eddas, the Tuisco of Saxons and Germans, who gave his name to Tues-day, the "Tys-day" of the Scots-for which the corresponding French name "Mar-di" seems to preserve his Sumerian synonym of "Maru" (or Mar-duk). The Greek title of "Dionysos" (or properly, Dionusou or Dionusos of Homer) hitherto inexplicable, now seems to be possibly the Sumerian synonym for Tas as "Ana-su" or "The Descending God,"4 presumably to denote his angelic messenger function, with divine prefix Di (the Sumerian Di, "to shine") and hellenized into "Di-onysos."5
As the patron saint of Agriculture, Corn Spirit and Heavenly Husbandman or "Spirit of the Plough," Tas or Taxi, who, we have found, figured with the Plough in the Early Hittite rock-sculptures (Fig. 62, p. 340), bore in the Early Sumerian (or Phoenician) inscriptions the title of "Dasi of the Spear of Ploughshare Produce"6-wherein the word for "Spear" (Gir, the old English Gar) is poetic for "Plough"; and the word for "Fruit sprout produce" is pictured by a ploughshare, Lam,7 which is presumably the Sumerian source of the name of the Scottish Early Harvest festival "Lam-mas." Thus, at this early period, the Aryan
1 Sec Figs. 64, etc., and
H.C.C., lxxxix, cxiv, etc.
2 H.C.P., 214-6; 259, 261, etc.; 164, etc.; 53, etc.
3 J.S.D., 549.
4 Br., 10834.
5 "Tasc-onus" was the name of a celebrated "Roman" potter of Samian ware.
6 Da-si lam-gir, hitherto rendered with signs transposed as "Nin-gir-su."
p.355: TAS-MICHAEL AS SPIRIT OF THE PLOUGH
founders of Agriculture seem to have "beaten their swords into ploughshares"-the Spear of the Hittite warrior-god "Tash-of-the-Plough," Tash-ub or Dash-ub Mikal, which indeed seems represented in his hand as of plough shape in some of the Ancient Briton coins (see Fig. 65g).1
Now this discovers to us the long-forgotten meaning of a complex symbol
found very often on prehistoric monuments in
This hitherto inexplicable prehistoric symbol of the "Crescent and Sceptre" is now discovered to represent the
earth-piercing of Tas, the heavenly
husbandman-piercing the earth by his spear-plough and heaving up the soil into
ridges for cultivation; and the direction of the piercing it will be noticed
is in the Sun-wise lucky direction, towards the west. The lower symbol, the
so-called "Spectacles and Sceptre," we
have already discovered is the solar swastika in the form of the
conjoined Day and "Night" (or "resurrecting") Sun of
the Sumerian theory, with the arrows indicating the direction of movement from
the East to the West, and thence "returning" underneath to the
Eastern sunrise. Another of these prehistoric monuments-with the Earth-piercing
and solar "Spectacles" is at the adjoining
village of Bourtie (or
This identification of the "Crescent and Sceptre" with the Spear-plough of Tas is confirmed and established by the Ogam inscription carved on the top of the stone, around the margin of the Sun's disc; and it has hitherto remained undeciphered, because in the absence of clues there was no
Pl. 5, 10 and 12.
2 S.S.S., 1, Pl. 132, 3.
p.356: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
indication where the stroke letters began or ended, so as to make any recognizable sense to Ogam's scholars.1 It reads, I find, in the sunwise direction, B(i)l Tachab Ho R(a), see Fig. 71.
FIG. 71.-Logie Stone Ogam Inscription, as now deciphered, disclosing invocation to Bil and his Archangel "Tachab" or "Taqab" (or "Tashub.")2
This gives the translation
"To Bil (and) Tachab, Ho raised (this)."
Here it is noteworthy that this other Briton inscription to the Sun-god Bil has precisely the same ending formula of R(a) or "raised" as in the two of the Cassi-Phoenician Part-olon's adjoining monuments to the same god; and it is presumably of or about the same date as the latter.
The name of the erector, Ho, is in series with the Cymric
traditional name of "Hu
Gadarn" (or Hu the
Gad or Phoenician, the Noble or Chief ?) for the first
traditional Cymric king from the
1. See B.O.I., 358.
2 The 5 strokes above the line may be read CH or Q-here CH appears to be the intended value.
3 Welsh Triads, 6 and 7
4 Hu'a, ambassador of emperor Burna Buriash to Pharaoh Amen-hotep
5 C.P.N., 82.
6 Ib., 80-82.
have seen that the Cassis in their Sun-worship figured Tas on their sacred seals with the Cross and Goats, and they ploughed and sowed under the sign of the Cross.
Other incidental evidence of the early establishment of Agriculture in the Don Valley by the Cassi-Phoenician Part-olon and his descendants is found in the fact that the Don Valley is one of the relatively few parts of Britain where Bronze sickles have been unearthed;1 and the place where the greatest hoard of these have been found bears the significant name of "Arye-ton,"2 presumably "Town of the Aryans." As further local evidence for the Tascio-Michael cult are the two ancient sacred wells called "St. Michael's" in the parish of the Newton Stone.3
In respect of the above evidence for the Aryan Kassi
cult of the Corn Spirit Taxi in the Don Valley, it is interesting to find that
Ptolemy in his "Geography" calls the tribe inhabiting the Don
Valley at the beginning of the Christian era "Tezal(oi)" and the town "Taixalon," a name
which appears to contain this "Taxi" Corn cult title. These people
probably inhabited, I think, the modern "Dyce,"
with its Stone Circle (see map, p. 19), now about four miles up the Don from
Aberdeen city, but probably in those days nearer the sea. This "Dyce," with its local
variants Dauch and Tuach,
possibly preserves, I suggest, Ptolemy's ancient Briton name of "Taixalon,"4 with which may be compared Texel
In view of all this evidence for the local prevalence in the
1 Evidence of ancient
2 Arreton Down near
3 S.S.S., 1, 1.
4 Ptolemy's work is known to have been based upon the earlier work of Marinus of Tyre from an ancient Phoenician Atlas so that his names are presumably older than his own date. The affix alon = the olon or "Hittite" title of Part-olon.
p.358: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
The introduction of the Gentile St. Michael5 into Christianity
dates probably to the very commencement of the latter. The angel who imparted
healing virtues to the pool at the old Hittite city of Jerusalem at the time of
Christ6 is generally considered to have been Michael, as that was
his special function in the numerous St. Michael Wells in later Christianity,
and also, as we have seen, in the Sumerian litanies.
1 B.L.S., Novr., 315-6. He is also
called variously Mocumma, Tochanna
and Dochonna; but "Machar" is the
3 B.L.S., 316.
4 S.P.S., 185, etc.
5 Michael, we have seen, was entirely a Gentile creation in origin and name. That name nowhere occurs as the name of an angel in the Old Testament except in Daniel (10, 21, and in 12, 1 where called "prince"); and then it is in Greek script, and not Hebrew. And the account of Daniel and the lions therein is seen to be a post-exilic borrowing from the famous Hitto-Sumerian and Babylonian representations of Indara or Tas taming the Lions, so frequently figured on Hitto-Sumerian seals (see Fig. 60), and on pre-Christian Briton monuments (Fig. 60). The name "Dana" is Sumerian for "supreme ruler" and Bel (
6 John, v, 4.
Michael the recognized titles of Archangel of Heaven and Vanquisher of "the Dragon, the old Serpent," just as in the
Sumerian texts. St. Paul deprecates the worship of angels amongst the
Christians in central Asia Minor of the Hittites.1 The tomb of the
non-Christian emperor Hadrian was consecrated to St. Michael.2
Constantine rebuilt an old shrine to Michael on the Bosphorus,
where cures had been effected by Michael, at the site of an old temple which
was traditionally built by the Argonauts,3
i.e., the Pioneer exploring sailors under Hercules of the Phoenicians. And
Constantine also built, or rebuilt, two other shrines to Michael on the Asiatic
coast opposite Constantinople.4 And many of the earliest Christian
churches, from the beginning of the fifth century onwards, both in Asia and
Europe, were dedicated to Michael and in some of these the Saint retained the
attributes of Zeus. One of these fifth-century churches in
The Early Fathers of the Christian Church also credit Michael with the same
functions ascribed to him in the Sumerian texts and pre-Christian monuments and
[In the rubrics of the fifth century AD. details are given for his festival,
and Food and Wine offerings are prescribed. A fast of forty days in his honour are mentioned,6
presumably for his conquest of the Dragon Satan. The orations in the seventh
century of Theodosius, archbishop of
"I am Michael, the governor of the denizens of Heaven and Earth, who brings the offerings of men to God, my king, who walks with those whose trust is in God."7 "I hearken unto everyone who prayeth to God in my name."8 His chief enemy
2 H.E.R., 8, 620.
3 W.M. Ramsay, Church in
4 H.E.R., 621.
5 Site of
6 In Life of St. Francis, H.E.R., 8, 622.
7 E. Budge, St. Michael, 40.
8 Ib., 100.
p.360: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
is the Devil; and he delivers from Hell (Amenti) when called upon in the hour of need.1 And his healing through Water and sacred springs and wells is widespread. And he had a devil-banishing Cross made of Wood.2]
St. Patrick, the Scot of Dun-Barton in the fourth and fifth centuries, was
traditionally a votary of Michael, who is credited with having commanded
Patrick to cross the sea to convert "his brither
Scots" in Scotia or Ireland,3 where many of the oldest
churches are dedicated to Michael. The vast number of early churches dedicated
to St. Michael in Britain is indicated by there being no less than forty-five
in the Welsh or Cymric diocese of St. David's alone;4
and they are also especially numerous in the old Phoenician
settlements in Cornwall and Devon. And the "Healing
Waters" of the Wells and springs of St. Michael-"the House of Pure
Sprinkling" and "the pure healing waters of Tas(-Mikal)" of the Sumerian litanies-in the
Indeed, so essentially "prehistoric" is the name and significance of "Saint Michael" that the most recent clerical authority on his cult says: "Given an ancient dedication to St. Michael and a site associated with a headland, hill-top or spring, on a road or track of early origin, it is reasonable to look for a pre-Christian sanctuary-a prehistoric centre of religious worship."
1 E. Budge, St. Michael, 46.
2 Ib., 89.
3 Genair Patraice, 4 and Gloss., and H.E.R., 8, 622,
4 M.E.R., 8, 622.
5 H.E.R., 8, 623.
6 Rev. T. Barns in H.E.R., 8, 621-2.
p.361: HITTO SUMER ORIGIN OF ST. MICHAEL
We thus further discover, and also for the first time, the remote origin and
economic meaning of the racial title "Ary" or "Ary-an," and find that it is a Hitto-Sumerian word "Arri,"
originally designating the White Syrians or Hitt-ites
or "Catti," or Early Goths, as the "Earers" or Ploughers, in their
capacity of founders of the Agricultural Stage of the World as the basis of the
Higher Civilization; and Agriculture still remains the economic basis of
modern Civilization. We discover still further evidence for the Hitto-Sumerian Language being the parent of the radically
Aryan words of the Aryan Family of Languages, and especially of the Briton or
British Gothic which (and not Anglo-Saxon) is the basis of the "English" Language at the present day. We also discover that these Aryan "Earers" and so-called
"Sun-worshippers" adopted as their patron-saint, under Indara (or Andrew) or St. George his
1 King Alfred's prayer at end of his translation of Boethius.
p.362: PHOENICIAN ORIGIN OF BRITONS & SCOTS
And these "Sun-worshipping" Hitto-Phoenician Catti Barats or Early "Brit-ons," whose long-lost history and origin are now recovered for us in great part in these pages by my new keys, are disclosed by a mass of incontestable attested facts and confirmatory evidence to be a leading branch of the originators and propagators of the World's Civilization and of the Higher Religion of the One God, with belief in Resurrection from the Dead and its devil-banishing symbol of the Cross, and to be the Aryan ancestors of the modern Brit-ons or Brit-ish (including the Scots), properly so-called, as opposed to the preponderating aboriginal and other non-Aryan racial elements in the population of the British Isles at the present day.
FIG. 72.-"Bird-men" on Briton monuments as Phoenician Tas-Mikal or "St. Michael."
From monuments at Inchbrayock and Kirriemuir, Forfarshire.
(After Stuart. S.S.S., 1, 43; 2. 2.)