FIG. 60A.-Ancient Briton "Tascio" coin inscribed DIAS.
(After Poste, and cp. Figs. A, B, p. xv.)

Chapter XXII


Disclosing his identity with Phoenician Archangel "Tazs," "Taks," "Dashap-Mikal," and "Thiazi," "Mikli" of Goths, "Daxa" of Vedas, and widespread worship in Early Britain; Phoenician Origin of Dionysos and "Michaelmas" Harvest Festival and of those names.

"O Son Tas1 Lord of the World!
Mighty hero supreme, who subjugates
hostility . . .
Gladdener of Corn, Creator of Wheat
and Barley!
Renewer of the Herb . . .
Director of the Spirits [Angels] of Heaven.
Thou madest the tablets of Destiny."
-Sumer Litany.2

"Bearer of the Spear of the hero."-
"The Great Messenger, the pure one of Ia,"-Ib.3
"O Dashap-Mikal bless us!"
Phoenician Inscriptions.4

WE have already found that the tutelary Tas or Dias of the Sumerians or Early Phoenicians, also called "Son Tas or Dach" ("Mero-Dach"), "The first-born Son of God Ia" (Jahveh, Jove or Indara), was the archangel messenger

1 "Mero-dash" is the corrupt Hebrew form of this Sumer name, the "Mar-duk" of Assyrians, which was adopted in this translation. But we have already seen that the Sumerian reads Mar-u or Mar-uta (= "Son" + "Sun or Light"), wherein the second word occasionally has the value of Dag. The older forms of his name, however, we have seen were Tas, Tax or Dasi, so for uniformity Tas is used here and throughout this chapter.
2 S.H.L., 537.
3 Ib., 480, 517.
4 C.I.S. references p. 341.



of Ia, and that he was freely invoked and figured upon sacred seals and amulets by the Sumerians, Hittites, Trojans, and Phoenicians, just as we discovered that he was invoked in the prehistoric cup-mark inscriptions in Britain. And we have found that he was the chief divinity figured along with the Cross defending the Goats or Deer, symbolizing the "Goths," in the Hitto-Sumerian Trojan and Phoenician seals and amulets and on Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician coins, just as we find him figured on the ancient monuments and coins of the Early Britons (see Figs. 60, etc.) in which latter he bears not infrequently the stamped name of "Tasc" or "Tascio" or "Dias,"1 and is figured sometimes winged and frequently along with ears of corn and the Corn "Cross" of his father Indara or Andrew of the X type (see Fig. 61).

FIG. 61.-"Tascio" or "Tascif" of Early Briton Coins is Corn Spirit "Tas" or "Tash-ub" of Hitto-Sumerians.
(Coins after Evans).2
NOTE.-Corn "Crosses" of Indara or Andrew X type in c and d, and pellet or "cup" Crosses
in b, with head and beard as in archaic Hittite rock sculpture of Tash-ub in Fig. 62.

We now find further that Tas is hailed as "The Gladdener of Corn, Creator of Wheat and Barley," as cited in the heading. This discovers his identity with the Corn Spirit of the Greeks, "Dionysos"- which name, indeed, of hitherto unknown origin and meaning, we now find was

1 As Dias, see Figs. A and B, page xv. Sumer script in A read Dias or judgment of God.
2 a E.C.B., Pl. 8, 12; b, Ib., 6, 3; c Ib, 5, 8; d Ib., 14, 9.


apparently applied to Tas in Sumerian; thus discovering the Sumerian origin of Dionysos in both name, function and representations. This also explains for the first time why Corn and Barley are so frequently figured on the "Tascio" coins of the Ancient Britons, and along with Tascio on Phoenician coins, and why the popular Hittite divinity "Tash-ub" or "Tash-of-the-Plough" is figured holding stalks of Corn on the Hitto-Sumer seals, and as a gigantic warrior clad in Gothic dress holding Corn stalks and bunches

FIG. 62.-Tascio as "Tash-ub," the Hittite or Early Gothic Corn-Spirit. From archaic Hittite rock-sculpture at Ivriz in Taurus.
(After von Luschan and Wilson.)
NOTE.-He is dressed as a Goth, with snow-boots, and Goat-horns on his conical Trojan or Phrygian cap, and he carries stalks of Barley-corn and bunches of Grapes, and behind him is a Plough. The adoring high-priest has solar swastikas, in key pattern, embroidered on his dress.

of Grapes beside a Plough, in the archaic Hittite rock sculpture in the Cilician Gates of the Taurus at Ivriz, near Heraclea (Fig. 62), as Tas or Tascio is the defied Hercules.

Moreover, we find that Tascio is the Hitto-Phoenician original of St. Michael the Archangel in name, function and


representation. The later Phoenicians, calling him "Dashup"1 occasionally add the title "Mikal" in invoking his blessing2; and this name also appears, I find, upon the Phoenician coins of Cilicia of the fifth century along with the figure of Taxi in Phoenician script as "Miklu" (see Fig. 66); and as "Mekigal" in the Sumerian name for the old Harvest festival corresponding to Michael-mas.

And we shall find that the Hitto-Sumerian cult of Michael the Archangel, introduced by the Phoenicians, was widespread over Ancient Britain in the Phoenician period, from the Phoenician tin-port of St. Michael's Mount in the south to the two "St. Michael's Wells" near our Phoenician inscriptions in the Don Valley in the north, and in the name of other early churches and wells dedicated to St. Michael still further north. Vestiges of this cult of St. Michael the Archangel, as the Corn Spirit, introduced into Britain by the Phoenicians, are now seen to survive to the present day in the name of "Michaelmas" for the Harvest Festival (September 29th) in Britain, in association with his sacred sacramental Sun-Goose, (see Fig. 66), the "Michaelmas Goose" of that festival:-

September, September, when by Custom, right Divine,
Geese are ordain'd to bleed at Michael's shrine."4

and in the "St. Michael's Bannock or Cake" of the Michaelmas festival in the Western Isles of Scotland."5

The notion of investing God with an archangel appears to have arisen long after the Aryans had "created" the idea

1 See below. The D and R are often identical in Phoenician.
2 C. I. S., 90, 2; 91, 2; 935; 94, 5; and pp. 1, 94-99, 105, etc.
3 The Goose was sacred taboo in Ancient Britain, D.B.G., 5, 12, 6.
4 King's Art of Cookery, 63, H.F.F., 409.
5 Martin, describing the Protestant inhabitants of Skye, writes, "They observe the festivals of Christmas [Yule], Easter, Good Friday and that of St. Michael. Upon the latter day they have a cavalcade in each parish, and several families bake the cake, called 'St. Michael's Bannock.'" W. Islands of
Scotland. 213, and 100. Regarding St. Kilda, Macaulay writes, "It was, till of late, an universal custom among the islanders on Michaelmas Day to prepare in every family a loaf or cave of bread, enormously large. This cake belonged to the Archangel. Everyone in each family, whether strangers or domestics, had his portion of this kind of showbread, and had some title to the friendship and protection of St. Michael." (Hist. of St. Kilda, 82).


of God in the image of man as "The Father-god," and after they had given him a host of angels to counteract the swarms of malignant demons with which primeval man and the Chaldean Mother-Son cult had infested the earth, air and "the waters under the earth." The process by which the archangel was invented and his functions arranged and developed now seems to become evident. The Father-god or "Bel" was early given by the Aryans the title of "Zagg" or "Sagg"1 (or "Zeus"), as it exists on the earliest known historical document, Udug's trophy Stone-Bowl from the oldest Sun-temple in Mesopotamia at Nippur. This "Zagg" has the meaning, "The Shining Stone + Being, Maker or Creator," thus giving the sense of "Rock of Ages" to the God as the Creator.

This early Aryan name for God, about two millennium before the birth of Abraham, with its sense of fixity, is soon afterwards found spelt by the Early Sumerians in their still-existing inscriptions as Zax or Zakh, in the form "The Enthroned Zax or Zakh" (En-Zax),2 with the meaning "The Enthroned Breath or Wind."3 This presumably was to denote God as The Breath of Life, and perhaps also his invisibility as a Spirit. This ancient Aryan idea of God as "The Breath of Life" is preserved in the reference in Genesis to the creation of man: "God breathed into his nostrils the Breath of Life and man became a living soul."4 And in the Old Testament, God "flies on the wings of the Wind,"5 and in the New Testament the working of God's Spirit is compared to the Wind.6 Such slight alterations in the spelling of divine and other proper names in order to denote a different though correlated sense, were often made by the Sumerians, and are parallel to their spelling of "Induru" as "Indara," with a different shade of meaning.

This idea of the "enthronement" and fixity of The Father-god in human form in heaven, with its sense of vast remoteness and aloofness from the earth, was presumably

1. Spelt alphabetically, Za-ga-ga, see before.
Br., 5928. Hitherto disguised by Assyriologists reading Zax by its semitic synonym of Lil.
3. Br., 5932.
4. Genesis, 2, 7.
5. Psalm xviii, 10, etc.
6. John iii, 8.


the reason why the Sumerians, in their human craving for the more immediate presence of God on the earth, delegated his powers on earth to a deputy in the person of "The firstborn Son of Ia," the Archangel "Tas" or Taxi (hero-Dach or Mar-Duk), who ultimately was made in Babylonia to overshadow his Father and was given most of the titles of the latter-not only "King of Heaven and Earth," "Lord of the Lands," "Creator," and "Holder of the Tablets of Fate," but even "Slayer of the Dragon of Darkness," which achievement thus became credited to him as St. Michael.1 And the later Chaldean polytheists made him king of their motley pantheon, amongst whom the various departments of Nature were parcelled out, and they even also called him "Bel" or Father-god.

But amongst the purer Hitto-Sumerians and Phoenicians, adhering to monotheism and its "Sun-worship," Tas appears to have retained his original character of the archangel of The One God, although he is addressed as a "god," which also has the general sense of "divinity." Thus in many of the Sumerian psalms and litanies he is the mere agent on the earth of the Father-god who is enthroned in heaven. He is "The great Messenger, the pure one of Ia,"2 "Companion of Heaven and Ia,"3 "The Merciful One who loveth to give Life to the Dead,"4 "Lord of Life and Protector of Habitations,"5 and "Ever ready to hear the Prayers of mankind," he transmits these to his Father, The Enthroned Zax (Zeus) in heaven and carries out the orders of the latter. And we have such scenes pictured in Hittite seal, e.g., Fig. 63, which shows a sick man on his bed attacked by the Dragon of Death, and he appeals to Tas, who in turn intercedes with his Father-god Indara.

Thus we read in the old Sumerian psalms and litanies such invocations and incidents as the following:- 

"May thou, Son Tas, the Great Overseer of the Spirits of Heaven, exalt thy head!6
"(To) the Corn-god I have offered! . . ."

1. Indra alone killed the Dragon without aid of "Maruta" (Marduk). RV. 1, 165, 6.
2. S.H.L., 517.
3. Ib., 501.
4. Ib., 501.
5. Langdon, S.P., 277.
6. S.H.L., 517.



"May the god of Herbs, the Assembler of God and man
Deliver such and such a man, the son of his God, And may he be saved!"1

FIG. 63.-Archangel Tas interceding with God Indara for sick man attacked by Dragon of Death. From Hittite Seal of about 2,500 B.C.
(After Delaporte.)
Note bed of sick man, and sacred Goat of Indara; and cp. Psalm xxxiv, 6-7.
The circles (cups) above man = Muru or "Amorite"; and Sumer sign above dragon = "Raven of Sin-Fire" (Br., 2227), Lax or Lakh "Fire" = "Luci-fer," or Loki.

Then the archangel Tas, hearing this prayer, repairs to his Father in Heaven, "The Good Shepherd who rests not, who causeth mankind to abide in safety;"3 and presents the prayer:

"The Son Tas has regarded him [the supplicant].
To his Father Ia, into the house he descends4 and says
'O my Father, the Evil Curse like a demon has fallen on the man!'
Ia to his son made answer . . .
'Go my son, Son Tas!
Take the man to the House of Pure Sprinkling,
And remove his ban, and expel his ban.'"5

Or Ia or Indara replies:-
"O Son Tas, substance of mine, Go, my Son!
Before the [Cross of the ?] Sun-god take his [the afflicted's] hand,
Repeat the spell of the pure hymn!
Pour the (cleansing) Waters upon his head!"6

Or:-"Go, my Son Tas!
Let the Fire [-Cross ?] of the Cedar tree,
The tree that destroys the wickedness of the incubus,

1. S.H.L., 468.
2. D.C.O.(L) pl. 82. 406.
3. L.S.P., 245.

4. Here "descends" is used, when Ia or Indara is supposed to reside in the Waters.
5. S.H.L., 472.
6. Ib
., 516.



On whose core the name of Ia is recorded,
With the spell supreme . . . to foundation and roof let ascend
And to the sick man never may those seven demons approach!"1

The Archangel's association with Corn and Agriculture as "The Corn Spirit," was in series with his Father's titles of "Lord of the Lands" and of Agriculture, in the Sumerian psalms.

Thus in these psalms "The Enthroned Zax" is hailed:-

"Lord of the Harvest Lands, Lord of the Grain Lands!
Husbandman who tends the fields art thou, O Zax the Enthroned!2
"Tender of the plants of the Garden art thou!
Tender of the Grain Fields art thou!"3

"Father Zax, the presents of the Ground are offered to they in sacrifice!
O Lord of Sumer, figs to thy dwelling-place we bring!
To give Life to the Ground thou dost exist!
Father Zax, accept the sacred offerings!"4

It is easy to see now, in the light of our discoveries, why the Early Aryans or Hitto-Sumerians, Khatti or Catti Goths were naturally led to institute a patron saint or Archangel of Agriculture and The Plough. They were, I find, the founders of the Agricultural Stage of the World's Civilization, and made Agriculture the basis of their Higher Civilization and the Settled Life-and it still remains the basis of the Higher Civilization to the present day. They also took from it their title of "Arri"-or "Arya" (Englished into "Arya-n")-which, I find, is derived from the Sumerian Ar, "a Plough" (which thus discloses the Sumerian origin of the Old English "to Ear (i.e., plough) the ground," Gothic Arian, Greek Aroein, Latin Ar-are). And they made ploughing and sowing sacred rites under the Sun Cross, as we have seen in the Cassi seal of about 1350 B.C. (see Fig. 12, p. 49) and the same scene is figured on seals of the fourth millennium B.C. In establishing Agriculture, the Aryans, as a small band of civilized pioneers,

1. S.H.L., 470.
2. L.S.P., 199, 201.
Ib., 277.
4. Ib., 279.


FIG. 64.-Archangel Tas-Mikal defending Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" with Cross and Sun emblems on Greco-Phoenician coins.
(From Cilician coins of 5th century B.C. onwards in British Museum.)
Note Goat springing to Cross (a-b) and Crosses (a-e), legends TKS, TKZ, and DZC, Goat and Cross under throne of Bel Tarz, who bears Cross standard; and compare with opposite figures on Briton Coins.

a One of the oldest Cilician coins of "Early Fifth Century, B.C.," supposed to be from Celenderis, sea-port (founded by Phoenicians), W. of Tarsus, see Hill H.C.C., Pl. 814. Goat is springing to the Cross, with Sun circle and Cross above it, formed by circles as in Briton coins, and bearing in front Phoenician legend reading, apparently, "TKS."

b Reverse with stamped Cross.

c Celenderis coin of about 450-400 B.C. (H.C.C., 9, 2) shows Hercules-Tascio descending from his Sun-horse to defend Goat (on reverse, d). Note Cross on his back, formed by circles, as in Briton coins and Hitto-Sumerian seals, and his club in right hand.

d Reverse of c, with Goat kneeling before Cross, behind rock, and adoring or invoking Cross in sky; representing Hercules-Tascio as messenger of Sun-god. Other analogous coins, H.C.C., 9, 1 and 3-9; 13-16; and 10, 1-5, etc.

e Hercules as "Lord of Tarsus" on coins of Tarsus of period of Mazaeus, 361-333 B.C. (H.C.C., 30, 6), bearing Phoenician legend, "Bal TKZ" or Lord Tahz (see text). Hercules-Takz seated on throne above a Goat's head and handled Cross, and bearing in left hand the Cross; as standard with fruited stalk; and in right bestows grapes, reaping sickle and ear of Corn (= Dionysos).

f Reverse of e. Stag (kin of Goat) attacked by Lion--which was killed by Hercules. Other variant coins of this type, H.C.C., 30, 1-5, 7, 8, and numerous Hitto-Sumerian and Cypro-Phoenician cylinders, etc. (see later).

g Coin supposed to be from Aigea (modern Ayas), port to E. of Tarsus, of period of Macrinus, 217-218 A.D. (H.C.C., q, 9). Showing bust of young Dionysos with bunch of grapes, and behind, his name. DZC, i.e., equivalent of "Tasc" or "Dias" of Briton coins. Very numerous coins of this type with legend DZC (see text).

h Another Aigea coin of same period (H.C.C., 4, 11), showing long-maned mountain Goat, standing before branch or stalk of corn, and bearing on top of his horns two Fire-torches (or sacred Fire of the Sun cult) and legend DZC (i.e., "Tasc") as before.


had to defend themselves and their fields by force of arms against the depredations and bitter religious hostility of a world of hungry savage nomadic hordes of Serpent- and

FIG. 65.-Archangel Tas defending Goats ("Goths") with Cross and Sun emblems on Early Briton coins.
(After Evans and Stukeley.)
Note Goats with Cross and Sun signs by circles, as in Greco-Phoenician on opposite page and legends Tas, Tasciio.


a Long-maned Goat coin (E.B.C., G. 4) as in Cilician coin, Fig. 64 h, and in Hittite seals (Fig. 59, etc.) with Sun-circles. Obverse bears a Hercules head generally similar to b; with a Sun circle rosette as in Cilician coin, Fig. 64 a, etc. It is essentially a copy of the latter archaic Cilician coin with springing goat and Sun-circles.

b Obverse of similar type of coin (E.B.C., 8, 2) with head of Hercules bearded in style of Hittite rock-sculpture (Fig. 62). Its legend is read "VER" by Evans, as place of mintage of Verulam (St. Albans), the capital of Cassi-vellaunus; but it may read "HER" = "Hercules."

c Reverse of b (of similar type to a and Cilician Fig. 64 a), showing Cross and rayed Sun behind and above Goat, also circle pelleted Cross on body of Goat identical with that on body of Hercules on Cilician coins, Fig. 64 c.

d Winged Goat on obverse of coin stamped "Tasc" (E.B.C., 6, 1). The winged Goat is not infrequent in Hitto-Sumer seals and Cilician coins.

e E.B.C., 11, 5 Cunobelin coin = Winged Tascio or "Resef Mikel" or St. Michael bestowing wreath or fruited Sun. Cp. Cilician coin, Fig. 64 e.

f E.B.C., 10, 12 and 13. Goat nourished by Hercules as "Tasciio." For Goats fed by hand of Tax or Tascio in Hitto-Sumerian seals, see W.S.C., 380, 387, etc.

g E.B.C., 5, 10-12. "Tas" or "Tasc," with "Celtic" and St. Andrew's Crosses and spear, galloping to rescue Goats (Goths). On obverse, Corn Cross in form of St. Andrew's Cross, with Sun discs. For other Corn Crosses of Tax, the Corn Spirit, see former figures.

h S.C.B., Pl. 8, 2, etc.


Devil-worshipping aborigines. They achieved their success through the leadership of the great warrior Aryan king, the second king of the First Aryan Dynasty of the traditional lists, who was, I find, the inventor of the Plough and establisher of Agriculture.1 Later, the Aryans gratefully apotheosized him and made him their patron saint and the prototype of the Archangel of their Sun-cult, and represented him armed as a warrior, and he is thus the human original of the Archangel Taxi or Tas, the "Tash-ub" or "Tash of the Plough" of the Hittites, the Tascio of the Briton coins and monuments, and St. Michael the Archangel of the Gentiles who, under his Father, fought against and overcame "the Dragon, the Old Serpent, and his angels," who warred against "the Sons of God"-a favourite title of the Aryans, appearing in early Sumerian inscriptions, and reflected in Genesis.

We now discover why the Archangel Tas or Taxi was invoked in the prehistoric "cup-mark" inscriptions of the Early Britons, and was so freely figured on the great majority of the very numerous mintages of coins of the Early Britons or Catti, many of which bear his name stamped thereon as "Tasc, Tascio, Tascia, Taxci, Tcvi," etc. (see Figs. 61, etc.), along with ears of Corn and Sun Crosses, both the erect True Cross and the X "Cross" or Hammer of his Father "Andrew" or Indara, and as Grain-Crosses, and as defending the Goats or Deer symbolizing the "Goths" or Catti Aryans, and figured in the same conventional manner on the Briton coins as he is represented on the sacred seals of the Catti or Khatti Hitto-Sumerians and on the coins of the Phoenicians (compare Figs. 64 and 65 for some of these identities).

We also now see why Tas, as the archangel of the Sun-cult and St. Michael, is figured on the Early Briton coins and prehistoric and pre-Christian monuments often with wings, and often accompanied by the Sun Hawk or Eagle, or the Sun Goose (Michaelmas Goose), or Phoenix of the Phoenicians, as well as with the Sun Horse often winged, and the Sun disc, and all in more or less identical form with the conventional

1 Details in my Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.


representations of "Tas"-Michael on the Hittite sacred seals and on the Phoenician coins of Cilicia, in the "Land of the Khatti" or Hittites (see Figs. 66 and 67, etc).

FIG. 66.-Taxi as "Michael" the Archangel bearing rayed "Celtic" Cross, with Corn, Sun Goose or Phoenix on Phoenician Coins of Cilicia of fifth century B.C.
(Coins after Hill.)1
Note in a the Phoenician legend MKLU or "Mikalu"; and in c Phoenix Sun-bird before Fire-altar, with bearded Corn and two-barred handled Cross.


FIG. 67.-Tascio or St. Michael the Archangel on Early Briton pre-Christian Coins.
(Coins after Evans.)2
Note in a the fruited Sun-disc, bearing 12 pairs of fruit, corresponding to the months of the year. In b "Tcvi" with head of Dionysos (cp. Fig. 64). c Winged Michael with club of Erakles and legend "ER." d "Tascia" Sun Hawk with two strokes = "Sun." e Winged Sun Horse tied to Sun, over three "cup-marks" = Earth, or Death (vanquisher of).

1 a-b, H.C.C., Pl. 16, 13; in a MKLU in Phoenician Script, in b MAGR, presumably for Magarsus, ancient seaport at mouth of Pyrenees in Cilicia. c Ib., Pl. 16, 12.

2 a E.C.B., Pl. 3, 11. b-c, Ib., 3, 14. d Ib., Pl. 6, 7. f Ib., 8, 14. Sun bearing Eagle transfixes the Serpent of the Deep and of Death.


In Egypt also-now seen to have been Aryanized by the Catti Phoenicians - "Michael" actually appears under earlier forms of the latter name as "God of the Harvest" and also "of the Red Cross." As "Resef  (i.e., Rashap Mikal) he is a god of the Middle Period admittedly imported from "Syria" (i.e., Syria-Phoenicia) and he is represented as a warrior with the Goat's head as a chaplet, and carrying the handled Cross of Life (see Fig. 69), and his relation to Food-Grain is indicated in his name Resef, meaning Food-Grain.1 He also bears titles equivalent to "Archangel" in "Governor of the Gods" (the Egyptians being inveterate polytheists) and "Lord of the Two-fold Strength among the Company of the Gods."2 And as "Makhi-al" (or Makhi-ar) he is the "Harvest God" and equivalent of Michael.

FIG. 68.-Phoenix Sun-Bird of Tascio with Crosses and Sun-discs, from Early Briton Cave gravings and Coins.

(After Simpson, Stuart and Evans.)3

Note lozenge-lined Cross of Hittite and Trojan pattern. Cp. Figs. 44 and 46.


The Ancient Egyptians called their Harvest god "Makhi-al" (or Makhi-ar),4 and named that month after him, the "Mekir" of the Copts for that Harvest month, and also the god of the Harvest.5 Now this is practically his identical name, as current amongst the Hittites about 2400 B.C., where we find it spelt "Ma-khu-air"6 and he also had a month called after

1 Resef in Egyptian = "Food," B.E.D., 433 and Resi = "Corn," 431.
2 B.G.E., 2, 282.
3 S.A.S., Pl. 342 and cp. S.S.S., 2, Illust. Pl. 33, 1.         b S.A.S., Pl. 35, 2.         c E.C.B., 8, 1.
4 Cp. B.E.D., 286a, l and r have the same letter-sign in
5 Ib., 2862, and cp. B.G.E., 293. His harvest month was the sixth month of the Egyptian calendar.
6 Sayce, Cappadocian Cuneiform Tablets from Kara Eyuk,
Babylonia, 1910 (4), 2, 7.


him.1 He was also known to the Egyptians as "The Harvest god Makh-unna,"2 or "Makh of the Food-Stuff of Life," and also with an alternative spelling as "Makh of the Red Cross";3 for significantly this Cross is painted red in the Egyptian tombs, and is described as "The Devouring Fire,"4 i.e., The Fiery Cross of the Sun.

This now explains the Egyptian references to this Red Cross as giving also the meaning "eat" (of food), an association which has hitherto puzzled Egyptologists,5 but is now seen to be the association of St. Michael or Tash-ub (or Rasep-Mikal) with the Harvest, as Corn Spirit in the cult of the Cross.

In Ancient Mesopotamia the fuller and apparently original form of his "Michael" name is found as "Me-ki-gal " about 2400 B.C. It is applied to the great Harvest Festival and Harvest month called "The Barley Harvest Cutting" - Se-kin-kud, in which Se, the Akkadian Zeru, or "Seed grain" is disclosed as the source of our word "Seed" and "Ceres," and Kud or "cut" as the Sumerian source of our English word "cut."

So important was the Corn or Barley in the economy of the Sumerians that they latterly made that month of Mekigal or the Barley Harvest the first month of their Agricultural year and the month of their chief festivities, although still retaining the solar year in the background.6 Now the meaning of this name of the Archangel Me-ki-gal, as defined in the Sumerian, is of immense importance for the history of religion. It is defined as "The Door of the Place of Calling in Prayer"7 or "The Door of Heaven."8 Thus the Aryan Archangel. Michael is called as intercessor between Earth and Heaven, "The Door of Heaven," which thus accounts for the great popularity of his worship, and his title of "Saviour,"9 and explains why the Phoenician votive

1 Thureau-Dangin, Rev. Assyriologique, 1911, 8, 3, 2 a, 9 and b 13.
2 Cp. hieroglyphs B.E.D. 319b.
3 Ib., 319b.
4 G.H., pp. 37 and 67 and P.L. 6, Fig. 78.
5 Ib., 37 and 67.
6 H.E.R., 3, 73, etc., and Langdon, Archives of Drehem, 1911, 15, etc.
7 For the Sumerian written signs of the name, see Langdon (above) tablets Nos. 24, 37, 43, etc., etc.
8 On "Door" word-sign, see B.B.W. No. 87, and on Me as "Heaven," see ib. 2, p. 239.
9 See above.


inscriptions to Bel invoke "the blessings" of "Resef Mikel" or "Mikel of the Food-Corn."

The foregoing Egyptian abbreviated forms of the name "Michael" as Makh and Makhu, etc.,1 are interesting as having parallels in the Sumerian, Syriac, Sanskrit and Gothic. Even the Hebrew form "Micha-el," which has been adopted as the English form of his name, has been generally regarded as having for its final syllable the Semitic el or "god," which thus gives the proper name as "Micha." In Syriac charms St. Michael, as the protector of the grain crops against damage, is invoked as "Miki, Mki-ki."2 In the Gothic Eddas he is Mick, Moeg, Mag-na and Mikli, son of Thor.

[In the Vedas, "Magha-van" or "Winner of Bounty (Magha)," a title of the Sun-god Indra and of some of his devotees; and the Vedic month Magha is the chief Harvest month and the month of great festival. He also seems to be the Mash divinity of the Amorites and Babylonians, who was a "Son of the Sun-god,"3 and the bearer, as we have seen, of the "Mash" or "Mace" as the Red Cross.]

This identity of Tas or Tas-Mikal, under these slightly variant spellings, in Egypt, Vedic India, Phoenicia, Hitto-Sumer, and Ancient Britain is absolutely confirmed and established by the essential identity in the representations of this divinity along with the Cross and his Goat (or "Gothic" rebus). He is figured with the Cross and Goat, as we have seen on the Hitto-Sumer seals (Figs. 59) and on Phoenician coins (Figs. 64) and on ancient Briton coins (Figs. 65, etc.), and Early Briton monuments (Figs. 60, etc.). Similarly is he figured in Ancient Egypt (as Resef or Resaph) with the Cross and Goat (Fig. 69) and in India as Daxa (or "the Dextrous Creator") with the Goat's head and field of Food-crops (Fig. 70).

His Goat relationship is celebrated in the Sumerian

1 Other Egyptian spellings of his name are Makhi, a seasonal god (B.E.D., 275b) and Makhi, god of Fire altar (ib., 286a).
2 H. Gollancz, Syriac Charms, lxxxii.
3 See Clay, Empire of Amorites, 179. "Mash" is an interchangeable title of the reflex solar divinity whose name is usually conjecturally rendered "Ninib" and "Uras" (ib., 179), whose Hittite shrine in
Palestine was at "Uras-ilim" or Jerusalem, as we have seen.


litanies, where he is hailed as "Divine leader, the He-Goat"1 (Indara); and as the protector of "the Goatwan"2 (i.e., Goth).

FIG. 69.-Tascio in Egypt as "Resef," or Corn-Spirit.
(After Renan.)4
Note his Goat's head chaplet and handled
Cross-of-Life, and Spear.

FIG. 70.-Tascio or Taxi as "Daxa," Vedic Hindu Creator-god.
(After Wilkins.)3
Note his Goat's head, and standing in field of Food-Crops and giving his blessing.

The spelling of the name "Tascio" on Briton coins is also parallel in its variations to the variations in the Hitto-Sumerian and Sanskrit and in the Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician coins.

Thus in Briton coins the name is spelt Tas, Tasc, Tasci, Tascio, Tascia,5 Taxci,6 Tcvi, Tascif,7 Tascf,8 Tasciovan, Tasciovani, Tigiio,9 Dias,10 Deas, Deascio.11 In Sumerian Taxi, Takhi or Dias, also Ta-xu,12 Tas, Tuk or Duk. In Hittite

1. Elim., C.I.W.A., 2, 55, 31f. and S.H.L., 284, 446; cp. M.D., 271.
2 cp. S.H.L., 447. Sigga-ni + "man," and Sigga = "Goat."
3 Hindu Mythology, 309.
4 C.I.S., 1, 38.
5 See Fig. 67.
6 E.C.B., 5, 9.
7 See Fig. 62.
8 E.C.B., Pl. 10, 7.
9 Ib., 17, 3.
10 Figs. A and B.
11 Brit. Num. Jour., 1912.
P. Curlyon-Britton, 1-7.
Br., 4052, and significantly it is written by character for "Wing" or Hand + Bird, i.e., "The Winged Michael." A variant Tis-xu (hitherto read Tis-pak) is "The Bird Messenger of God."


Tash-ub (or "Tash of Plough"), Teisbas or Dhuspuas in. Van inscriptions and Su-Tax or Su-Takh (or "Tax the Sower"); and he is the "Dagon" of the Philistines. In Indian Vedas Tvashtr (or "Taks") and Daxa or Daksha for solar Creative gods of food and animals, of whom the first fashions the bolt of Indra, creates the Horse, so frequently associated with Tas in the later period, has the food and wine of the gods, and bowl of wealth and confers blessings. On the Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician coins of Cilicia the name is spelt Dioc, Dzs, Dek and Theoys;1 and in coins of Phoenicia Dioc, Dks, Thios, Tes, Theas and Theac.2

And significantly the name "Tasc" still survives in the Scottish Task for "Angel or Spirit."3 And he is presumably the "Thiazi" or Ty giant warrior assistant of Thor in the Gothic Eddas, the Tuisco of Saxons and Germans, who gave his name to Tues-day, the "Tys-day" of the Scots-for which the corresponding French name "Mar-di" seems to preserve his Sumerian synonym of "Maru" (or Mar-duk). The Greek title of "Dionysos" (or properly, Dionusou or Dionusos of Homer) hitherto inexplicable, now seems to be possibly the Sumerian synonym for Tas as "Ana-su" or "The Descending God,"4 presumably to denote his angelic messenger function, with divine prefix Di (the Sumerian Di, "to shine") and hellenized into "Di-onysos."5

As the patron saint of Agriculture, Corn Spirit and Heavenly Husbandman or "Spirit of the Plough," Tas or Taxi, who, we have found, figured with the Plough in the Early Hittite rock-sculptures (Fig. 62, p. 340), bore in the Early Sumerian (or Phoenician) inscriptions the title of "Dasi of the Spear of Ploughshare Produce"6-wherein the word for "Spear" (Gir, the old English Gar) is poetic for "Plough"; and the word for "Fruit sprout produce" is pictured by a ploughshare, Lam,7 which is presumably the Sumerian source of the name of the Scottish Early Harvest festival "Lam-mas." Thus, at this early period, the Aryan

1 Sec Figs. 64, etc., and H.C.C., lxxxix, cxiv, etc.
2 H.C.P., 214-6; 259, 261, etc.; 164, etc.; 53, etc.
3 J.S.D., 549.
4 Br., 10834.
5 "Tasc-onus" was the name of a celebrated "Roman" potter of Samian ware.
6 Da-si lam-gir, hitherto rendered with signs transposed as "Nin-gir-su."
Br., 309 and cp. B.B.W., 2, p. 8.


founders of Agriculture seem to have "beaten their swords into ploughshares"-the Spear of the Hittite warrior-god "Tash-of-the-Plough," Tash-ub or Dash-ub Mikal, which indeed seems represented in his hand as of plough shape in some of the Ancient Briton coins (see Fig. 65g).1

Now this discovers to us the long-forgotten meaning of a complex symbol found very often on prehistoric monuments in Britain and hitherto called merely descriptively "The Crescent and Sceptre." This symbol of unknown meaning significantly occurs in the neighbourhood of our Phoenician monument of Newton on three prehistoric sculptured stones, removed from a moor bordering the N.E. foot of Mt. Bennachie and the Gady, and now preserved in the adjoining village of Logie (see map, p. 19), whence they are called "The Logie Stones," one of which is figured at p. 20 (Fig. 5B), wherein this complex symbol occupies the middle of the stone above the "Spectacles" and below the circular Ogam inscription at the top,

This hitherto inexplicable prehistoric symbol of the "Crescent and Sceptre" is now discovered to represent the earth-piercing of Tas, the heavenly husbandman-piercing the earth by his spear-plough and heaving up the soil into ridges for cultivation; and the direction of the piercing it will be noticed is in the Sun-wise lucky direction, towards the west. The lower symbol, the so-called "Spectacles and Sceptre," we have already discovered is the solar swastika in the form of the conjoined Day and "Night" (or "resurrecting") Sun of the Sumerian theory, with the arrows indicating the direction of movement from the East to the West, and thence "returning" underneath to the Eastern sunrise. Another of these prehistoric monuments-with the Earth-piercing and solar "Spectacles" is at the adjoining village of Bourtie (or village of Barat ?).2

This identification of the "Crescent and Sceptre" with the Spear-plough of Tas is confirmed and established by the Ogam inscription carved on the top of the stone, around the margin of the Sun's disc; and it has hitherto remained undeciphered, because in the absence of clues there was no

1 E.C.B., Pl. 5, 10 and 12.
2 S.S.S., 1, Pl. 132, 3.


indication where the stroke letters began or ended, so as to make any recognizable sense to Ogam's scholars.1 It reads, I find, in the sunwise direction, B(i)l Tachab Ho R(a), see Fig. 71.

FIG. 71.-Logie Stone Ogam Inscription, as now deciphered, disclosing invocation to Bil and his Archangel "Tachab" or "Taqab" (or "Tashub.")2

This gives the translation

"To Bil (and) Tachab, Ho raised (this)."

Here it is noteworthy that this other Briton inscription to the Sun-god Bil has precisely the same ending formula of R(a) or "raised" as in the two of the Cassi-Phoenician Part-olon's adjoining monuments to the same god; and it is presumably of or about the same date as the latter.

The name of the erector, Ho, is in series with the Cymric traditional name of "Hu Gadarn" (or Hu the Gad or Phoenician, the Noble or Chief ?) for the first traditional Cymric king from the AEgean who arrived in Britain.3 It is presumably the source of the modern "Hugh." Significantly "Hu'a" was the Cassi name of a royal ambassador of the Cassi emperor of Babylonia to the Egyptian Pharaoh, in the Amarna letters of about 1400 B.C.;4 and "Hu Tishup" also appears as an Aryan Cassi name,5 and Hu is a common front-name in the personal names of the Cassis of Babylonia and Syria-Cilicia.6 The erector "Ho" was thus presumably a Cassi Barat in race, like Part-olon; and we

1. See B.O.I., 358.
2 The 5 strokes above the line may be read CH or Q-here CH appears to be the intended value.
3 Welsh Triads, 6 and 7
4 Hu'a, ambassador of emperor Burna Buriash to Pharaoh Amen-hotep
III., A.L.W., 9, 5.
5 C.P.N., 82.
6 Ib., 80-82.


have seen that the Cassis in their Sun-worship figured Tas on their sacred seals with the Cross and Goats, and they ploughed and sowed under the sign of the Cross.

Other incidental evidence of the early establishment of Agriculture in the Don Valley by the Cassi-Phoenician Part-olon and his descendants is found in the fact that the Don Valley is one of the relatively few parts of Britain where Bronze sickles have been unearthed;1 and the place where the greatest hoard of these have been found bears the significant name of "Arye-ton,"2 presumably "Town of the Aryans." As further local evidence for the Tascio-Michael cult are the two ancient sacred wells called "St. Michael's" in the parish of the Newton Stone.3

In respect of the above evidence for the Aryan Kassi cult of the Corn Spirit Taxi in the Don Valley, it is interesting to find that Ptolemy in his "Geography" calls the tribe inhabiting the Don Valley at the beginning of the Christian era "Tezal(oi)" and the town "Taixalon," a name which appears to contain this "Taxi" Corn cult title. These people probably inhabited, I think, the modern "Dyce," with its Stone Circle (see map, p. 19), now about four miles up the Don from Aberdeen city, but probably in those days nearer the sea. This "Dyce," with its local variants Dauch and Tuach, possibly preserves, I suggest, Ptolemy's ancient Briton name of "Taixalon,"4 with which may be compared Texel Isle, off Friesland, in the home of the Anglo-Saxons. It is further remarkable that the shield of the city arms of Aberdeen should contain the Cross and three sheares of Corn.

In view of all this evidence for the local prevalence in the Don Valley of the cult of the Corn Spirit Tascio St. Michael, it is interesting to find that the patron saint of the cathedral

1 Evidence of ancient commerce between Aberdeen and the East is indicated by ancient Grecian coins having been found at Cairnbulg in 1824. These included a gold tetradrachm of Philip of Macedon, 3 Greek silver coins of the same period and a brass coin of the Brutii of Magna Grecia. N.S.S., 4, 292.
2 Arreton Down near
Newport in the Isle of Wight. E.B.I., 204, 222-4.
3 S.S.S., 1, 1.
4 Ptolemy's work is known to have been based upon the earlier work of Marinus of Tyre from an ancient Phoenician Atlas so that his names are presumably older than his own date. The affix alon = the olon or "Hittite" title of Part-olon.


at Aberdeen, now usually called "St. Machar" or "St. Macker," was also known as Tochanna,1 especially as we have seen that Michael's name was sometimes anciently spelt by the Hittites and Egyptians as "Makhur, Makhiar, and Mekir." This St. Machar or Macker or "Tochanna" is a more or less legendary missionary personage, said to have been sent to the Picts of the Don Valley by Columba in the sixth century A.D. But in view of what we have seen of the quality of the other legend regarding St. Andrew from the same source,2 and the fact that this St. Machar legend is also discredited in essentials,3 it seems possible that this "Machar" was an old locally current name attached to the pagan cult of St. Michael or "Makhiar," and was erected into a Christian saint in proselytizing the local votaries of the Michael Corn cult there, just as Indara's shrine a little further south was converted into "St. Andrews," where significantly the first Christian Church was dedicated to Michael,4 i.e., "The First-begotten Son of Indara or Andrew."

The introduction of the Gentile St. Michael5 into Christianity dates probably to the very commencement of the latter. The angel who imparted healing virtues to the pool at the old Hittite city of Jerusalem at the time of Christ6 is generally considered to have been Michael, as that was his special function in the numerous St. Michael Wells in later Christianity, and also, as we have seen, in the Sumerian litanies. St. John, in his Apocalypse, gives

1 B.L.S., Novr., 315-6. He is also called variously Mocumma, Tochanna and Dochonna; but "Machar" is the common form.
2 The
Aberdeen Breviary is the chief source of both the St. Andrew and St. Machar legends, ib.
3 B.L.S., 316.
4 S.P.S., 185, etc.
5 Michael, we have seen, was entirely a Gentile creation in origin and name. That name nowhere occurs as the name of an angel in the Old Testament except in Daniel (10, 21, and in 12, 1 where called "prince"); and then it is in Greek script, and not Hebrew. And the account of Daniel and the lions therein is seen to be a post-exilic borrowing from the famous Hitto-Sumerian and Babylonian representations of Indara or Tas taming the Lions, so frequently figured on Hitto-Sumerian seals (see Fig. 60), and on pre-Christian Briton monuments (Fig. 60). The name "Dana" is Sumerian for "supreme ruler" and Bel (
Br., 6191); and the Akkad "Danu," "Judge," seems to be derived from it, as it is an especial title of the Sun-god as " The Judge" (M.D., 258). And Dan is a title of Thor in the Gothic Eddas.
6 John, v, 4.


Michael the recognized titles of Archangel of Heaven and Vanquisher of "the Dragon, the old Serpent," just as in the Sumerian texts. St. Paul deprecates the worship of angels amongst the Christians in central Asia Minor of the Hittites.1 The tomb of the non-Christian emperor Hadrian was consecrated to St. Michael.2 Constantine rebuilt an old shrine to Michael on the Bosphorus, where cures had been effected by Michael, at the site of an old temple which was traditionally built by the Argonauts,3 i.e., the Pioneer exploring sailors under Hercules of the Phoenicians. And Constantine also built, or rebuilt, two other shrines to Michael on the Asiatic coast opposite Constantinople.4 And many of the earliest Christian churches, from the beginning of the fifth century onwards, both in Asia and Europe, were dedicated to Michael and in some of these the Saint retained the attributes of Zeus. One of these fifth-century churches in Italy bears an inscription calling Michael "The God of the Angels who has made the Resurrection,"5 i.e., precisely his ancient title in the Sumerian litanies, Trojan amulets, and in the cup-mark inscriptions of Pre-historic Britain.

The Early Fathers of the Christian Church also credit Michael with the same functions ascribed to him in the Sumerian texts and pre-Christian monuments and coins in Britain.

[In the rubrics of the fifth century AD. details are given for his festival, and Food and Wine offerings are prescribed. A fast of forty days in his honour are mentioned,6 presumably for his conquest of the Dragon Satan. The orations in the seventh century of Theodosius, archbishop of Alexandria, make Michael declare:

"I am Michael, the governor of the denizens of Heaven and Earth, who brings the offerings of men to God, my king, who walks with those whose trust is in God."7 "I hearken unto everyone who prayeth to God in my name."8 His chief enemy

1 Coloss., ii, i8.
2 H.E.R., 8, 620.
3 W.M. Ramsay, Church in
Roman Empire, 477, etc., and H.E.R., 8, 621.
4 H.E.R., 621.
5 Site of
temple of Jupiter, Clitum, in Umbria with inscription, "S.C.S. deus Angelorum qui fecit Resurrectionem." H.E.R., 8, 620.
6 In Life of St. Francis, H.E.R., 8, 622.
7 E. Budge, St. Michael, 40.
8 Ib., 100.


is the Devil; and he delivers from Hell (Amenti) when called upon in the hour of need.1 And his healing through Water and sacred springs and wells is widespread. And he had a devil-banishing Cross made of Wood.2]

St. Patrick, the Scot of Dun-Barton in the fourth and fifth centuries, was traditionally a votary of Michael, who is credited with having commanded Patrick to cross the sea to convert "his brither Scots" in Scotia or Ireland,3 where many of the oldest churches are dedicated to Michael. The vast number of early churches dedicated to St. Michael in Britain is indicated by there being no less than forty-five in the Welsh or Cymric diocese of St. David's alone;4 and they are also especially numerous in the old Phoenician settlements in Cornwall and Devon. And the "Healing Waters" of the Wells and springs of St. Michael-"the House of Pure Sprinkling" and "the pure healing waters of Tas(-Mikal)" of the Sumerian litanies-in the British Isles, the Continent and Asia Minor are innumerable.

In the Early English Church the pre-eminence of Michael is evidenced by the fact that the Michael Epistle and Collect in the English Prayer-book formerly came before the Gospels as the first Lection.5 It was St Michael, and not St. George, slaying the Dragon, which first appears on English coins. And the mintage of the Michael-Dragon gold coins by Edward IV., called "Angels," was for centuries in popular demand for "touching" in the miraculous cure of "King's Evil;" and its motto significantly was "By the Cross do Thou save me!"-as on the Hitto-Sumerian seals, Trojan amulets and Early Briton monument.

Indeed, so essentially "prehistoric" is the name and significance of "Saint Michael" that the most recent clerical authority on his cult says: "Given an ancient dedication to St. Michael and a site associated with a headland, hill-top or spring, on a road or track of early origin, it is reasonable to look for a pre-Christian sanctuary-a prehistoric centre of religious worship."

1 E. Budge, St. Michael, 46.
2 Ib., 89.
3 Genair Patraice, 4 and Gloss., and H.E.R., 8, 622,
4 M.E.R., 8, 622.
5 H.E.R., 8, 623.
6 Rev. T. Barns in H.E.R., 8, 621-2.


We thus further discover, and also for the first time, the remote origin and economic meaning of the racial title "Ary" or "Ary-an," and find that it is a Hitto-Sumerian word "Arri," originally designating the White Syrians or Hitt-ites or "Catti," or Early Goths, as the "Earers" or Ploughers, in their capacity of founders of the Agricultural Stage of the World as the basis of the Higher Civilization; and Agriculture still remains the economic basis of modern Civilization. We discover still further evidence for the Hitto-Sumerian Language being the parent of the radically Aryan words of the Aryan Family of Languages, and especially of the Briton or British Gothic which (and not Anglo-Saxon) is the basis of the "English" Language at the present day. We also discover that these Aryan "Earers" and so-called "Sun-worshippers" adopted as their patron-saint, under Indara (or Andrew) or St. George his Archangel son as "Corn Spirit" in their Sun-cult. And they formed him on the model of their historical Aryan Hittite king who had invented the Plough about 4300 B.C., Tas-Mikal (or Mekigal), who is now disclosed as the historical human basis of Michael the Archangel of Heaven, of the Gentiles, the "Tascio" of the pre-Roman Briton Catti coins, the Taxi or Dasi of these Sumers, "Dag-on" of the Philistines, the Daxa of the Indian Vedas, and the "Dionysos" and Tyche of the Greeks, by hellenized names coined from Sumerian originals. We further find that this solar cult of Michael the Archangel and Corn Spirit, associated with the solar symbol of the True Cross of Universal Victory by the Sun, and the late harvest festival of Michaelmas, was widely prevalent in Early pre-Roman Britain, where it was disembarked and transplanted at St. Michael's Mount with its associated Sun-Fire cult about 2800 B.C. or earlier by the tin-exploiting, colonizing Hitto-Phoenician Barats, the Ploughers of the Deep and builders of the great solar Stone Circles, and the pagan gravers of the contemporary cup-marked Sumerian votive inscriptions of the prehistoric period, who invoked the blessing of "Sancti Michaele," just as did King Alfred.1

1 King Alfred's prayer at end of his translation of Boethius.


And these "Sun-worshipping" Hitto-Phoenician Catti Barats or Early "Brit-ons," whose long-lost history and origin are now recovered for us in great part in these pages by my new keys, are disclosed by a mass of incontestable attested facts and confirmatory evidence to be a leading branch of the originators and propagators of the World's Civilization and of the Higher Religion of the One God, with belief in Resurrection from the Dead and its devil-banishing symbol of the Cross, and to be the Aryan ancestors of the modern Brit-ons or Brit-ish (including the Scots), properly so-called, as opposed to the preponderating aboriginal and other non-Aryan racial elements in the population of the British Isles at the present day.

FIG. 72.-"Bird-men" on Briton monuments as Phoenician Tas-Mikal or "St. Michael."
From monuments at Inchbrayock and Kirriemuir, Forfarshire.
(After Stuart. S.S.S., 1, 43; 2. 2.)

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