Chapter XXI


Disclosing pre-Christian Worship of Andrew in Early Britain & Hittite Origin of Crosses on Union Jack. Scandinavian Ensigns, Unicorn & Cymric Goat as Sacred Goat of Indara, "Goat" as rebus for "Goth"; and St. Andrew as an Aryan Phoenician.

"O Lord Hidava,1 thou sturdy director of men,
Thou makest the multitude to dwell in peace!"-Sumerian Psalms2

"The Waters collected in the Deep,
The pure mouth of Indara has made resplendent."-Sumerian Psalms.3

"Indra, leader of heavenly hosts and human races!
Indra encompassed the Dragon-
O Light-winner, day's Creator!"-
Rig. Veda, 3, 34, 2-4.

"Slaying the Dragon, Indra let loose the pent-up Waters."
"Indra, hurler of the Fast-winged Rain-producing Bolt."-Rig Veda.4

STILL further evidence for the Hitto-Phoenician origin of the Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons is found in the legend of St. Andrew with his X Cross as the patron saint of the Scyths, Gothic Russia, Burgundy of the Visi-Goths from the Rhine to the Baltic, Goth-land and Scotland. We shall now find that the Apostle bearing the Aryan Gentile and non-Hebrew name of "Andrew" was presumably an Aryan Phoenician, and that the priestly legend attached to

1. "Indara" (= "Induru") is here used instead of its synonym Ea as given in this translation.
2. Langdon, Sumerian Psalms, 109.
3. S.H.L., 487. (See note 1.)
4. R.V., 4, 19, 8.
5.  4, 22, 2.



him incorporates part of the old legend of his namesake Induru, a common Sumerian title of the Father-god Be], who is the Hittite god Indara, "Indri or Eindri-the-Divine," a title of Thor of the Goths;1 and Indra the Father-

FIG. 53.-Indara's X "Cross" on Hitto-Sumerian, Trojan and Phoenician Seals.

a W.S.C., 368 f., 1165, 1201; W.S.M., 190, 192; D.C.(L.), 1, Pl. 13, 15 and 19 (over 4 goats), Pl. 24, 15; Pl. 58, 26, 30, etc. Phoenician from Cyprus C.C. 117, 118, 252, etc. Trojan S.I., 1864, 1871, etc.       b W.S.C., 1165.

c W.S.C. (Phoenic), 1171, 1194-5, 1199-2000, etc.; C.C., Pl. 12 and 6, 15, 16, 18, etc.    d W., 951; D.C.(L.), 1, Pl. 18, 20, etc.

e W., 488, 952, 1169, 1203; C.C., 237.

f D.C.(L.), 1, Pl. 24, 17, with two Goats, Pl. 321b; 54, 7, 61, 1b.

g D.C.(L.), 2, 106, 1a.     h W, 559.     i D.C.(L.), 1, 17, 1. S.I., 2000.     k W, 490.     l W., 973, 1007. C.C., 252.

m D.C.(L.), 16, 2.     n D.C.(L.), 1, 14, 5-7, 11, 16; Ib., 2, 98, 9b.

o S.I., 1910.   p C.C., Fig. 118.

1. Indri-di or Eindri-di, cp. V.D., 123, where, however, it is sought to derive the name from reid, "to ride," although the name is never spelt with "reid." Di as Gothic affix appears to = "God," with plural Diar (cp V.D., 100), and cognate with Ty, "god," in series with the ty in Fimbul-ty, "Angan-ty" and "Hlori-di." This latter title of Thor now appears to Hler, "the Sea-god " (V.D., 274) and cognate with Hlyr, "tears" [? Rain] (V.D., 270) and for Hlori as a recognized spelling of Hleri, see V.D. 270.


god of the Eastern branch of the Aryan Barats. And we shall find that the worship of Andrew with his X Cross was widespread in Early Britain and in Ireland or Ancient Scotia in "prehistoric times," long before the dawn of the Christian era. And he is the INARA stamped with Cross, etc., on Ancient Briton coins (see Fig. 74 p. 384).

The X "Cross," now commonly called "St. Andrew's," or in heraldry "Cross Saltire" (or "Leaping Cross"), is figured freely, I find, on Hitto-Sumerian, Trojan and

FIG. 54.-"Andrew's" Cross on pre-Christian monuments in Britain and Ireland and on Early Briton coins.1

Phoenician sacred seals as a symbol of Indara, from the earliest period downwards, both simply and in several conventional forms, see Fig. 53. And significantly these


a             common.
b             E.C.B., B, 15, F, 6, 8 and 1, 1-4, 7, 8, etc.; C.N.G., Fig. 27. S.S.S., 83, W., 88d, common in key-pattern.
c             E.C.B., A, 1-6, etc.
d             E.C.B., B, 14 and common in "Celtic" crosses.
e             E.C.B., F, 8; 7, 8, 128, etc.
f              common, E.C.B., 3, 4, etc., and cup-marks; and without central. E, 86; S.S.S., 1, 24.
g             E.C.B., A, 1, etc. S.S.S., 1, 24.
h             frequent; W., 43.
i              W.L.W., 43.
k             Fig. 47 F1 and S.S.S., 1, 57, 58, 129, 138.
l              E.C.B., C, 13,
l1            E.C.B., 16, 9, and with circle centre, B, 11.
m            E.C.B., 14, 9.
n             S.S.S. 2, 101; W., 37, 2, 902. G.N.G., Fig.84.
o, p.        E.C.B., 5, 4.


various conventional Hitto-Sumerian and Trojan and Phoenician forms of Indara's X "Cross" are also found in more or less identical form on prehistoric monuments and Pre-Christian coins in Ancient Britain as the "St. Andrew's Cross," see Fig. 54, which compare with previous Fig.

This so-called "Cross of St. Andrew," although resembling the True Cross of equal arms in a tilted (or "saltire") position, does not appear to have been a true Cross symbol at all, but was the battle-axe or "hammer" symbol of Indara or Thor. In Sumerian, its name and function is defined as "Protecting Father or Bel,"1 with the word-value of "Pap" (thus giving us the Sumerian source of our English word Papa for "Father" as protector). It is also called Geur (or "George") or Tuur (or "Thor"), and defined as "The Hostile," 2 presumably from its picturing a weapon in the hostile attitude for defence or protection, and it is generally supposed, and with reason, to picture a battle-axe.3

It is especially associated with Father Indara or Bel,4 as seen in the ancient Hittite seal here figured (Fig. 55), representing Indara slaying the Dragon of Darkness and Death - a chief exploit of Indara or Indra (see texts cited in the heading)-wherein Indara, the king of Heaven and the Sun, is seen to wear the "St. Andrew's Cross" as a badge on his crown; whilst the axe which he wields is of the Hittite and non-Babylonian pattern. Describing this famous exploit, the Vedic hymns which describe Indara's bolt as "Four-angled" (see text cited in heading) also tell us:-

"With thy Spiky Weapon, thy deadly bolt,
O Indra, Thou smotest the Dragon in the face."5

We thus see how very faithfully the Indo-Aryan Vedic tradition has preserved the old Aryan Hitto-Sumerian

1. Br., 1141, 1146; M., 648.
Br., 1143, and for Tuur Br., 1140 and 10511.
3. Oppert, Exped. to Mesopot., 58 and B.B.W., 2, p. 28.
4. "The identity of Bel with I-a or In-duru or Indara is very frequently seen in Sumerian seals by Bel being figured with the attributes and symbols of Ia or Induru. Thus in the Trial of Adam (Fig. 33), Bel is represented in his usual form, whereas in the majority of specimens of that scene he is represented as in Fig. 57, with the Spouting Waters of Ia or Indara, as also in Fig. 35.
5. R.V., 1, 52, 13.


tradition as figured on this seal of about four thousand years ago; and how it has preserved it more faithfully even than the Babylonian tradition, which latterly transferred the credit of slaying the Dragon to Indara's son Tas or "Mero-Dach," though even on that occasion he has to be hailed by his father's title of "Ia"1 or "Indara" himself!

The Sumerian name for this X "Cross" deadly weapon of Indara has also the synonym of Gur, "hostile, to destroy," which word-sign is also pictured by a blade containing an inscribed dagger with a wedge handle, and defined as "hew to pieces" and "strike dead" -which word Gur thus gives us the Sumerian origin presumably of the Old English Gar, a spear,3 and "Gore," to pierce to death. This proves

FIG. 55.-Indara (or "Andrew") slaying the dragon. From Hittite seal of about 2000 B.C.
(After Ward.)4
Note the X on the crown, and the fire-altar below the Dragon, which the latter was presumably destroying.

conclusively that the X "Cross" was a death-dealing bolt or weapon as described in the Vedic hymns; and the modern device of the skull and cross-bones seems to preserve a memory of the original meaning of the X "Cross" as the deadly axe or "hammer" of Indara or Thor. And its

1. Cp. King, Seven Tablets of Creation, Tab. 7, p. 116, etc.
Br., 932; BBW., 45 and P.S.L, 164.
3. Thus "Brennes . . . lette glide his gar" (i.e., "Brian let fly his spear"), Layamon's Brut, 5079. In Eddie Gothic Geir = "spear," Anglo-Sax. Gar.
4. W.S.C., 584. Seal is in Biblioth. Nationale, Paris, 411. His Axe is of Hittite shape, as opposed to the Babylonian and Assyrian Scimitar.


Sumerian name of Gur, also spelt Geur, is thus presumably the Sumerian origin of the title of "St. George" as the slayer of the Dragon-"St. George" being none other than Indara or Thor himself under that protective title, and thus identical with Andrew.

This battle-axe protective character of this X "Cross" of Indara (or Andrew) is also well seen in the Hitto-Sumerian seals, in which it is placed protectively above the sacred Goats of Indara returning to the door of Indara's shrine or "Inn,"1 see Fig. 57n, p. 334, wherein we shall discover that the "Goat" is a rebus representation of "Goth," the chosen people of Indara or Ia, Iahveh, or Jove, who himself is described in the Sumerian hymns as a Goat,2 the animal especially sacred to Indra,3 and to Thor in the Eddas. In that Figure this cross-bolt is pictured, not only in the simple X form, but also with the double cross-bars, like the Sumerian picture-sign for the battle-axe (see Fig. 46, b and b1, and Fig. 59); and representing it, tilted over or oriented, as when carried over the shoulder or in action. Now this Sumerian form of Indara's (or Andrew's) bolt is figured on many ancient Briton monuments and pre-Christian Crosses and Early Briton coins in this identical form of "Thor's Hammer" (see Fig. 47, B and F2 and Fig. 54); and thus disclosing the Sumerian source of the "Hammer of Thor" or "Indri" (or Indara) as figured by the British and Scandinavian Goths.

The peculiar appropriateness of this Sumerian battle-axe sign of Indara for the patron saint of the Scots is that it is, as we have seen, the Sumerian word-sign for Khat or Xat, the basis of the clan title of Catti or Xatti (or "Hitt-ite"), which, we have seen, is the original source of "Ceti" or "Scot"4 As a fact, it occurs not infrequently on pre-

1. In Sumerian the name "In," for the hospitable house of Indara, discloses the source of our English "Inn."
2. Indara, the Creator-Antelope (Dara) . . . The He-Goat who giveth the Earth (S.H.L., 280 and 283) and see Figs. 59, etc. On Elim for He-Goat see before.
3. "The dappled Goat goeth straightway bleating To the place dear to Indra." RV., 1, 162, 2.
4. See previous notes. "Khatti" defined the Catti tribe as "The Sceptre-wielders" or ruling race.


Christian monuments in Scotland, oriented in the key-pattern ornament in Fig. 471, p. 295, not only at St. Andrews itself but elsewhere in Scotland, and also in Wales and in Ireland, the ancient "Scotia" (see footnotes to Fig. 47). Moreover, the Swastika Sun-Cross is likewise oriented in Scotland in the St. Andrew's Cross tilt in its key-pattern style.1 This shows that this tilting of this Catti or "Xati" Sumerian was deliberately done in Scotland, and thus presumably implies that the Scots in Scotland up tilt the beginning of our Christian era preserved the memory that this Sumerian sign "Xat" represented their own ruling clan-name of Catti, "Xati," "Ceti" or "Scot."

FIG. 56.-Indara's X Bolt or "Thor's Hammer" on Ancient Briton monument.
(After Stuart.)2
(See Figs. 47, B and F2 for other Briton examples of this Sumerian bolt.)

In transforming the Hittite Sun-god "Indara" or "Indra" into the Christian saint "Andrew," we find the analogous process resorted to as in the case of St. George, with the added facility that "Andrew," or "Andreas," was already the name of one of the Apostles. But the name "Andrew" is admittedly not a Hebrew or Semitic but an Aryan name, and now seen to be a religious Aryan name based on that of the Father-god Indara or Indra. Indeed, it is believed by biblical authorities that Andrew the Apostle,

1. S.S.S., I, Pl. 62, 63, etc.
2. S.S.S., I, 138. From Strathmartine, Forfarshire.


who was the first disciple of Christ of "Galilee of the Gentiles" and the introducer of his brother Peter to Christ, was an Aryan in race.1 He was significantly a disciple of John the-Baptist (of the pre-Christian Cross, cult), before he followed Christ, he introduced Greeks to Christ and was associated with Philip, an Aryan Greek,2 who, we have seen, was the companion of the Aryan apostle Bartholomew, With such an Aryan extraction and name he was naturally represented as the Apostle to Asia Minor (of the Hittites) and to the Scythians,3 who were Aryanized under Gothic or "Getae" rulers; and their name "Scyth," the Skuth-es, of the Greeks is cognate with "Scot."

Indeed, Andrew the Apostle appears to have been racially an Aryan Phoenician. He, like his brother Simon Peter - both elements of whose name are admittedly Aryan Gentile and non-Hebrew4 -was a fisherman with nets. This occupation presupposes a non-Hebrew race, as there is no specific bible reference to any Hebrews being sailors or fishermen with nets. The fish-supply of Jerusalem came from the Phoenicians of Tyre.5 And the name of the village in which Andrew and his brother Peter and Philip, dwelt on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee, was specifically Phoenician and non-Hebrew. It was called "Beth-Saidan"6 or "Beth-Saida." "Beth" is the late Phoenician form of spelling the Sumerian Bid, "a Bid-ing place" or "Abode," - thus disclosing the Sumerian origin of the English word "bide." And "Saidan" or "Saida," which has no meaning in Hebrew, is obviously "of Sidon." The Phoenician seaport of Sidon was latterly, and is now, called "Saida;" and is within fifty miles from Beth-saida, with which it was connected by a Roman road through Dan or Caesarea Philippi, on the frontier of Phoenicia, with an ancient Hittite fortress with a temple of Bel, now significantly called "St. George."7 And the two-horned mountain rising above Bethsaida and the adjoining Capernaum, and the scene of "The Sermon on the Mount," is called "The Horns of the

1. B.L.S., Novr., 594.
2. John, 12, 22.
3. Eusebius, H.E., 3, 5.
4. Encycl. Bibl, 4534 and 4559.
5. Nehemiah, 3, 3; 13, 16.
6. In Greek text Matt., 11, 21; Mark 6, 45; 8, 22.
7. El Khidr - by Arabs.


Khatti or Hatti," i.e., the Hittites, and we have seen that the Phoenician sailors of Sidon and Tyre were Hittites. It thus appears probable that Andrew, Peter, Bartholomew and Philip were not only Aryan in race, as their names imply, but that they were part of a colony of Sidonian Phoenicians, settled on the shores of the sea of "Galilee of the Gentiles."

And it is noteworthy that Christ, whose first disciples were Aryan Gentiles, and who himself dwelt and preached chiefly in "Galilee of the Gentiles," visited "the coasts of Tyre and Sidon"1 worked there a miracle on a Syrio-Phoenician woman,2 had followers from Tyre and Sidon,3 and he specially connects Bethsaida with Tyre and Sidon.4

The miraculous part of the legend grafted on to Andrew the Apostle by the Early Christian Church, in making him the Apostle to the Scyths, Goths and Scots, who were traditional worshippers of Andrew's namesake, Indara, is now seen clearly to incorporate a considerable part of the myth of his namesake, the God Indara of the Goths and Scyths. Whilst the general Romish and Greek Church legends make Andrew travel as a missionary in Scythia,5 Cappadocia of the central Hittites, Galatia, Bithynia, Pontus (including Troy) in Asia Minor, in Byzantium and Thrace of the Goths, Macedonia, Achaia, and Epirus6 (whence Brutus sailed to Britain), the Syrian Church history relates that Andrew [like "Indara, who maketh the multitude to dwell in peace"7] freed the people from a cannibal Dragon who devoured the populace; and the means which he used to destroy this monster and its cannibal crew was "to spout water over the city and submerge it."

Now this function of being a "Spouter of Water" for the welfare of mankind, was a leading function of God Indara amongst the Aryans, who were essentially agriculturists and dependent on irrigation for crops. His name is usually spelt in Sumerian, as we have seen, as "House of the Waters" ("In-Duru," or "Inn of the Duru," i.e., Greek

1. Matt. 15, 21; Luke 7, 24.
2. Mark 7, 3, 6.
3. Mark 3, 8; Luke 6, 17.
4. Matt.11, 21-22.
Tyre and Sidon had early Christian congregations (Acts 21, 3-7), and the bishops of the Christian synod of Tyre (335 A.D.) were Arians (R.H.P. 544).
5. Eusebius, H.E., 3, 5; and
B.L.S., Novr., 594.
B.L.S., Novr. 594.
7. See extract in heading.
8. B.S.L., Novr. 595.


Udor and Cymric Dwr, "Water").1 And Indara is very freely represented in the Hitto-Sumerian seals from the earliest period as "Spouting Water" for the good of mankind and to the discomfiture of the Dragon, who blocked the water-supply (see Figs. 35 and 57).

FIG. 57.-Indara spouting Water for the benefit of mankind and their cattle and crops.
From Hitto-Sumerian Seal (enlarged 2 diameters).
(After Ward.)2
Note.-This is same scene as in Fig. 33, but Bel has here his vase of spouting waters.

This Water-spouting of Indara is also freely celebrated in the Indian Vedic hymns wherein Indra is actually described as "garlanded" with the Euphrates River, precisely as figured in the above Sumerian seal, and as described in the Sumerian psalms, thus establishing again the remarkable literal identity of the Indo-Aryan Vedic tradition with the Sumerian.

"I, Indra, have bestowed the Earth upon the Aryan,
And Rain upon the man who brings oblations.
I guided forth the loudly roaring Waters."-R.V. 4, 26, 2.

"O Indra! slaying the Dragon in thy strength,
Thou lettest loose the Floods." - R.V., 1, 80, 11; 4, 17, 1; 19, 8.

"Indra, wearing like a woollen garland the great Parusni [Euphrates] River,3
Let thy bounty swell high like rivers unto this singer." - R.V., 4, 22, 2.

1. Indo-Pers. Darya, Derya "Sea."
W.S.C., 283-5.
3. The
Euphrates was called by the Sumerians Buru-su or Puru-su, and in Akkad, Puru-sinnu, which latter appears to be the source of its Vedic name of "Parasni".


"The Waters of Purusu [Euphrates], the waters of the Deep . . .
The pure mouth of Induru purifies."-Sumer Psalm.1

And a similar function is ascribed to Jehovah in the Psalms of David .2

It would, moreover, now appear that in fixing the place of St. Andrew's alleged martyrdom in Achaia in Greece and under a proconsul called AEgeas, the early Church had merely incorporated still further that part of the Hitto-Sumerian or Gothic myth of God Indara, wherein he bore the title of "Aix or Aigos," The He-Goat (or "Goth"),3 whilst his chosen people, the Sumers and Goths, were historically known as "AEgeans" or "Achaians" and their land as "Achaia."4 For there seems to be no real historical evidence whatsoever for the martyrdom of St. Andrew the Apostle; and the Syrian history which is presumably the most authentic, makes no mention of his martyrdom.

And even the extraordinary and hitherto inexplicable folk-lore tradition attaching to St. Andrew's Day, for maidens desirous of husbands to pray to that saint on the evening of his festival (30th November), as described by Luther, and current amongst the Anglo-Saxons,5 is now explained by Indra's traditional bestowal of wives:

"Indra gives us the wives we ask."-Rig Veda, 4, 17, 16.

In order to account for St. Andrew as the patron saint of the Scots (whom some writers, from the radical similarity of the name, have imagined to be "Scyths"), as the historical tradition prevents the Apostle Andrew from having proceeded further west in Europe than Greece, a Scottish story was fabricated6 that some of the bones of St. Andrew were

1. Cf. S.H.L. 477, wherein the "E-a" synonym of In-duru is given.
2. "Thou visitest the Earth and waterest it; thou greatly enrichest it with the
River of God." Psalm 65, 9.
3. See later.
4. Details in my Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.
5. Luther (Colloquia Mensalia, 1, 232) states that in his country the maidens, on the evening of St. Andrew's day, strip and pray to that saint for a husband. And the same custom prevailed amongst the Anglo-Saxons. H.F.F., 8.
6. B.L.S., Novr., 154. The legend found first in the Aberdeen Breviary is termed by Baring-Gould "the fable."


stolen from his shrine in Greece by a Greek monk in the eighth century A.D. and brought by him to St. Andrews in Fife, although no mention of such a transfer or of that monk is found in the Romish calendars on the dispersion of the relics of that saint or later; and the tale is otherwise self-contradictory.1 Presumably, therefore, there was an early Phoenician Barat "pagan" shrine to Indara or Indri Thor or Andreas at St. Andrews-which is near the mouth of the Perth river-at the foundation of the priory there at the conversion of the local Picts and Scots to Christianity in the eighth century A.D.2

This existence of a pagan shrine of Indara at St. Andrews in the pre-Christian period is confirmed by the unearthing there of a considerable number of pieces of ancient sculpture and fragments of crosses bearing no Christian symbols, but which, from their appearance, are believed to have been pagan and had "been broken up and thrown aside as rubbish,"3 or buried as casing for graves, or built into the foundations of the twelfth century cathedral.4 Amongst these fragments of crosses, which are of the Hitto-Sumerian pattern, are many ornamented with the double-barred Indara's or Thor's Hammer in key pattern.5 And one slab of elaborate sculpture bears, as its chief figure, what is obviously intended for Indara killing the Lion by tearing asunder its jaws,6 in defence of a sheep and deer or

1. Ib., 454. The Greek monk is called Regulus and is said to have brought the relics in the eighth century from Patras in Greece, the reputed place of St. Andrew's martvrdom and burial. But the Romish calendars state that all the relics of St. Andrew were removed from Patras by Constantine to Constantinople in 337 A.D. Ib., 598.
2. Several other towns in Britain appear to bear this Andreas or Gothic Eindri-de name, such as Anderida, the old name for Pevensey in the Roman period, the port where William the Norman landed in the Channel; Andreas in the Isle of flan with Runic monuments; Ender-by in Lincoln. And Indre was the old name and present provincial name of
Tours, which the British Chronicles relate was founded by Brutus. An analogous name seems St. Cyrus, an ancient port and ecclesiastic settlement between St. Andrews and the Don River. "Cyrus," we have seen, is a form of "George" or Gur, a synonym of Indara; and the only two saints called "Cyrus" are one in Egypt, and the other in Carthage, who has no distinct historical Christian basis (cp. B.L.S., July, 321) and thus probably also Phoenician.
3. S.S.S., 2, p. 5.
4. Ib, p. 4.
5. S.S.S., 1, Pl. 62 and 63, and 2, Pl. 9, 10, 11 and 18.
6. S.S.S., 1, 61.


antelopes-which is a famous exploit of Indara (as cited below); and this scene is very frequently figured on Hitto-Sumerian seals and sculptures. This same scene is also significantly pictured on a fragment at Drainie in Moray,1 where is the same double-headed Hammer of Indara or Thor on the Cross in Fig. 47F', and on several others in the same locality. And it is also noteworthy that one of the first Christian churches erected at St. Andrews was dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel,2 that is, as we have seen, and will see further, the archangel of Indara or Andrew.

This exploit of Indara in killing the devouring Lion as well as the Dragon demon to "make the multitude to dwell in peace," now appears to explain another folk-custom on St. Andrew's Day in England, which has hitherto been inexplicable. In Cornwall it is, or was till lately, a custom on St. Andrew's Day for a party of youths, making a fearsome noise blowing a horn and beating tin pans, to pass through the town for "driving out any evil spirits which haunt the place," and later the church bells take part in it.3 In Kent a rabble assembles on that day for hunting and killing squirrels; and a similar squirrel-hunting wake takes place in Derbyshire4; and the squirrel in Gothic tradition is synonymous with "demoniac."5 This custom of expelling evil spirits on St. Andrew's Day, whilst evidencing the former worship of that saint in England, presumably celebrates the expulsion by Indara of the Lion and Dragon demons.

Altogether, in view of the many foregoing facts and associated evidence, it is abundantly clear that St. Andrew, as patron saint of the Scots, Scyths and Goths, was the Hitto-Phoenician god Indara or Indri-Thor of our Catti or Xatti ancestors, transformed into a Christian saint by the Early Christian Church for proselytizing purposes. And that in picturing St. Andrew as impaled on an X Crucifix, he is represented as hoisted upon his own invincible "hammer."

St. Patrick's Cross also appears to have had its origin in the same "pagan" fiery Sun Cross as that of "St. George."

1. S.S.S. 130.

2. S.C.P., 185.
3. H.F.F., 8.
4. Ib., 8 and 562; but in Derbyshire at an earlier date in Novr.
5. Cp. V.D., 483.


St. Patrick, as we have seen, was a Catti or Scot of "The Fort of the Britons" or Dun-Barton, who went to Ireland, or "Scotia" as it was then called, on his mission to convert the Irish Scots and Picts of Erin in 433 AD. He appears to have incorporated the Sun and Fire cult of his ancestral Catti into his Christianity. This is evident from his famous "Rune of the Deer" in consecrating Tara in Ireland - wherein the name "Deer," the Sumerian Dava, now seen to be the source of our English word "Deer," is the basis of one of the Hitto-Sumerian modes of spelling the god-name of In-Dara, who, we shall see, is symbolized by the Deer or Goat. And the Sun is also called "The Deer" in the Gothic Eddas, and thus explains the very frequent occurrence of the Deer carved as a solar symbol on pre-Christian Crosses and other monuments in Britain as well as on Early Sumerian and Hittite sacred seals, and sculptures, as figured and described below.

In his "Rune of the Deer" St. Patrick invokes the Sun and Fire in banishing the Devil and his Serpent Powers of Darkness:-

"At Tara to-day, in this fateful hour
I place all Heaven with its Power,
And The Sun with its Brightness,
And the Snow with its Whiteness,
And Five with all the Strength it hath.

All these I place
By God's almighty help and grace
Between myself and The Powers of Darkness!"1

And there are repeated references to St. Patrick using his Cross to demolish Serpent and other idols and to work miracles with it, as did the Hitto-Sumerians. And he did so at a period before the True Cross had become identified with the Crucifix.

Thus, we discover that the Crosses of the British Union Jack, as well as the Crosses of the kindred Scandinavian ensigns are the superimposed "Pagan" red Sun Crosses and Sun-god's Hammer of our Hitto-Phoenician ancestors; which those "Pagan" forefathers had piously carried aloft as their own

1. Ed. E. Sharpe in Lyra Celtica, 17.


standards to victory through countless ages, and which have been unflinchingly treasured as their standards by their descendants in England, Scotland and Ireland, even after their conversion to Christianity, and who ultimately united them into one monogram at the reunion of the kindred elements in the British Isles into one nation-two of the Crosses in 1606, and "St. Patrick's" added in 1801.

FIG. 58. Unicorn as sole supporter of old Royal Arms of Scotland and associated with St. Andrew and his "Cross."
Note the Unicorn is bearded like a Goat, and wears a crown like Hittite, Fig. 4.

The Unicorn, also, which is the especial ancient heraldic animal of the Scots, the sole supporter of the royal arms of


Scotland, the surmount of the ancient town or market crosses of Edinburgh, Jedburgh, etc., the supporter or shield of the chief families bearing the family surname of "Scott,"1 and joined to the Lion (or, properly, Leopards) of England by James I. (VI. of Scotland) on the Union, is now disclosed to be the sacred Goat or Antelope of Indara, the Uz or Sigga, Goat, or Dara or Deer-Antelope of the Hitto-Sumerians, imported into Early Britain with Indara worship by the Barat Phoenician Catti or Early Goths in the "prehistoric" period. It is already seen figured in the early Hittite rock-sculpture (Fig. 4, p. 7) as "One-horned," standing by the side of the first Aryan Gothic king. This "one" horn, however, is merely the apparent result of this royal totem Goat wearing over its horns the long Phrygian cap of the Early Goths, like the king himself and his officials, but this latterly gave rise to the legend that the totem Goat had only one horn.

The Goat was the especially sacred animal of Indara, as recorded in the Sumerian and Vedic texts, some of which are cited in the heading; and Indara himself was, as therein cited, called by the Sumerians "The He-Goat";2 and Thor and his Goths are also called "He-Goats" in the Gothic Eddas, wherein Thor is called "Sig-Father," the identical name by which Bel also is called,3 i.e., by the Sumerian Goat name.

The title Sig or "the horned," the root of Sigga "Goat,"4 appears to have given its name to the peaked Hittite or "Phrygian" cap Sag (seen in that figure) as well as to its wearers, and thus explains the horned head-dress of the Hitto-Sumerians, Early Britons and Goths. It had the synonym of Gud5 which seems to be the source of both "Goat" and "Goth." Gud or Gut appear to be applied

1. E.g., Scotts of Buccleugh line.
2. Indara, the Creator-Antelope (Dara) . . . The He-Goat who is giveth the Earth. (S. H. L., 280 and 283. On Elim for He-Goat see before)
Br., 3374. Sig is also title of the Mountain Goat (Br. 3376, and cp. under Armu M.D., 102); and is the source of Caga "goat" in Sanskrit.
Br., 3388 (horn), 10899 (goat). Its Akkad equivalent, sapparu, seems source of Latin capra.
Br., 3504, also "horn" (3515).


to the Goat itself.1 Hence the ruling Hitti titles of "Sag" and "Gud" and "Gut" would explain why the Goths or Guti were called by the Greco-Romans both Getae and Sakai or Sacae-the latter being obviously the source of "Sax-on," and of the royal Indo-Aryan clan of Sakya to which Buddha belonged, and the latter Hittite tribe of "Sagas," who recovered Palestine from Akenaten,2 and whose name is defined as "people named Kas-sa,"3 i.e., obviously the Kasi or Kassi. Similarly, the Uz Goat name, which appears to have become Uku when applied to the people,4 seems to be the source of the name "Achai-oi" or Achai-ans for the leading tribe of early Aryans in Greece, as well as the Greek aix and Sanskrit aja for "goat."

The Goat appears thus to me to have been selected for this totem position by the Early Aryans or Sumerians or Goths, partly on account of its name resembling rebus-wise the tribal name of "Goth," partly because of the Early Aryans having been presumably Goat-herds in the mountains before their adoption of the settled life and their invention of Agriculture and Husbandry, and partly because the bearded and semi-human appearance of the Goat's head offered a strikingly masculine yet inoffensive effigy for their institution of the Fatherhood stage of Society, in opposition and in contrast to the primeval promiscuous Matriarchy of the Chaldee aborigines of the Mother-Son cult, with its malignant and devouring demonist totems of the Serpent, Bull-Calf, Vulture or Raven, and Wolf of Van or Fen (the Wolf exchanging also with the ravening Lion), and demanding bloody and even human sacrifices. And the fusion of these four totems is the origin of the Dragon.

Thus we find that the antagonism of the Goat (or "Unicorn") to the Lion (or Wolf or Dragon) is figured freely on Sumerian and Hitto-Phoenician seals from the earliest

1. Gud = "sharp-pointed" (Br., 4708) or "horned animal" (P.S.L., 159); and Gut, "horned animal," also Gut, "warrior class" (Br, 3677 and 5732, P.S.L., 169). The horned head sign Al with Sumer equivalent of Gud = Alu, "stag" (M.D., 39) and Al has Sumer equivalent of Guti (Br., 942-3, and M.D., 939) and cognate with Elim or Ilim, "He-Goat."
2. AL (W), 67, l. 21; 88, l. 13 and 18, etc. They are also called Habiri in Sumerian and Hafr is the ordinary title for the Goth soldiers of Thor in Eddas, and is defined as "He-Goat" (V.D., 231).
Br., 4730.
Br., 5915.


period, and also on Early Briton monuments and coins (see Figs. 59, 60), and that Indara himself is sometimes represented as a Goat or Deer (Dara) as the slayer or tamer of the demonist Lion, as is recorded also in the Vedic hymn which says: "Indra for the Goat [Goths] did to death the Lion."1 Yet so little is our modern heraldry aware of the facts of origin, meaning and function of the "Unicorn," that it now represents that invincible Aryan totem of the Sun Cross-and of Ia or Jove and Thor and of Heaven, and of our ancestral Aryan originators of the World's Civilization-in the form of a one-horned horse, but significantly bearded like a Goat, and bound in chains and set alongside of its vanquished foe of Civilization, which is supposed to have been its victor-the ravening Lion totem of the demonist Chaldee aborigines! Whereas in the old Hittite seals, it is the Lion which wears the collar and chain (see Fig. 59 L.), whilst the Unicorn or Goat is the victor through Indara and his archangel.

The Goat, "the swift-footed one of the mountains of sunrise," is represented by the Sumerians as the Sun itself and a form of the Sun-god, though less frequently so than is the winged Sun or Sun-Hawk or Phoenix-the horse only appearing in the very latest period. In the Vedic hymns also, the Sun is sometimes called "the Goat," with the epithet of "The One Step," presumably from its ability to traverse the heavens to the supplicant in "one step":-

"The Ruddy Sun . . . the One-Step Goat,
By his strength, he possessed Heaven and Earth."2

This "One Step Goat" in the Vedas is in especial conflict and contact with the Dragon of the Deep, just as we have seen was the Resurrecting Sun, the vanquisher of the Serpent-Dragon of the Deep and Death. In this capacity and in its struggle with the Lion or Wolf of Death, and as the rebus for "Goth," the Goat is freely represented on Hitto-Sumerian seals and on Phoenician and Greco-Phoenician coins, in association with the Sun Cross and the protecting Archangel Tas; see Fig. 59 and also

1. R.V., 7, 18, 17.
2. Atharva Veda, 13, 1, 6.


later. And significantly it is similarly figured on Early Briton Prehistoric monuments, Pre-Christian Crosses, and ancient Briton coins, and also in association with the Sun cross, and often the protecting Archangel Tas or Tasc, see Fig. 60, and further examples later.

This picture of a "Goat" (in Old English Goot and Gote, Eddic Gothic Geit, Anglo-S. Gat and Scots Gait) in these scenes appears clearly to be used as a rebus picture-sign for "Goth" (properly Got or Goti1) or Getae, Sumerian Guti, Kud or Khat; just as the battle-axe picture-sign was used for their tribal title of "Khat-ti" or "Hitt-ite." The hieroglyphic practice of using rebus pictures for proper names continued popular in Greco-Phoenician and Greek coins in Asia Minor down to the Roman period.2 This now explains also the references to the sacred Goat and Indra in the Vedic hymns, e.g. "The lively Goat goeth straightway bleating to the place dear to Indra."3

We now discover that the Sumerians and Hitto-Phoenicians or Early Goths called themselves, or their leading clans, by the names of "Goat," or by names which were more or less identical in sound with their name for Goat, and so made it easy for the picture of the Goat to represent rebus-wise their title of "Goth."4

This sacred character of the Goat as the totem animal of the Sumerians and Goths, and the source of the legend of the Unicorn, in its victory over the Lion, and as the hallowed animal of Indara or Andrew, now explains the fact of the Goat being still the mascot of the Welsh Cymri, and also the frequency of St. Andrew's Cross in the pre-Christian and early Christian monuments in Wales,5 and in parts of England. And the figures of the Goat in association with

1. The later historical Goths of Europe and Eddie Goths spelt their name Got and Goti, the th ending is a corruption introduced by the Romans.
2. These devices are called by numismatists "speaking badges" or "types parlants." Examples are Bull (tauros) at Tauro-menium, Fox (Alopex) at Alopeconnesus, Seal (phoke) at
Phocaea, Bee (melitta) at Melitaea. Goat (aix), supposed to be confined to cities called Aegae, Rose (rodon) at Rhodes, etc.; cp. M.C.T. 17, etc., 188.
3. R.N. 1, 162, 2.
4. Further details in my Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.
5. See references in above notes.



FIG. 59.-Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" of Indara protected by Cross and Archangel Tas (Tashub Mikal) against Lion and Wolves on Hitto-Sumerian, Phoenician and Kassi Seals.
(After Ward, etc.)
Compare with Briton examples in Fig. on opposite page. Detailed references on p. 336.



FIG. 60.-Ancient Briton Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" of Indara protected by Cross and Archangel Tascia (or Michael) against Lion and Wolves.
From ancient monuments, caves, pre-Christian Crosses and Briton coins. Compare with Hitto-Phoenician examples in Fig. on opposite page. Detailed references on pp. 336 and 337.


St. Andrew's Cross and other solar symbols on the Early Briton coins, and especially in the tin coins of Cornwall (and sometimes with the name Inara and "Ando,")1 and in forms identical with those existing on Hitto-Phoenician

1. "Andy" is a recognized contraction for "Andrew," see, e.g., Carnegie's autobiography.


a    W.S.C., 23, archaic Hittite seal (of about 3000 B.C.3). Goats defended from Wolves by Cross, and below are day and "night" linked Sun's disc, the original of "spectacles" on British monuments.

b    Ib., 69. Goat worshipping Cross, with rayed Cross below.

c    Ib., 526, 539. Another of same.                                d   Ib., 494, with Crosses, revolving rayed Sun of Swastikoid form.

e    Ib., 996. Archaic Hittite seal. Wolves attacking Goat which is saved by revolving Sun in "spectacles" form.

f     C.S.H., 308 (Hittite). Goat at decorated Cross defended against Wolf.

g    W.S.C., 525. Kassi seal of Tax (Tas or Tashub) saving Goat under the Cross from the Wolf, with rayed and lozenge Sun ornament in base.

h    C.C., Figs. 295-298. Tax or Tashub-Mikal saving Deer from Lion; from Phoenician coins of Azubal from Phoenician ruins at Kitium in Cyprus, inscribed "King Bel."                     i   W.S.C., 597. Another of same from Hitto-Sumer seal.

k    C.S.H., 302. Another Hitto-Phoenician form of same under Cross-like tree or "Fruit-Cross."

l     W.S.C., 949. Hittite seal of Tashub-Mikal winged, and clothed in lion's-skin as Hercules, defending Goats under "Celtic Cross;" and behind is vanquished lion chained, with collar and rope. Note also "Ionic" capital already in this Hittite seal of about 1400 B.C. Analogous Hittite seals in W.S.C., 946-7, 955, 987, etc.

m   Ib., 1195. Goat worshipping St. Andrew's Cross and Sun discs from seal in Phoenician grave in Cyprus.       n   Ib., 488. Goat protected by St. Andrew's Crosses.                   p   Ib., 490. Another with a 2-transverse-barred Cross.

q    A.E., 1917, 29 (after M. Benedite) Tax taming the Lions, on ivory handle of dagger of about 4000 B.C., supposed to be from Asia Minor.

r     W.S.C., 1023. Tax and assistant vanquishing the Lion, at the winged "Celtic" Cross of the Sun, on Hittite sacred seal.


a    E.C.B., H. 9. Archaic tin Brito-Phoenician coin (in Hunter Museum, Glasgow) showing Goat under three Sun discs, engraved in precisely the same technical style as archaic Hittite Cross Seal, Fig. 59, a, and in the Sumero-Phoenician m and p. Six other varieties in E.C.B., Pl. H.

b    S.S.S., 2. Illust. Pl. 31, 10-11. Prehistoric rock-graving from Jonathan's Cave, East Wemyss, Fife. Compare Hitto-Sumerian, Fig. 59, a-d. The Goat or Deer is going for protection to Cross, which is studded with knobs like the Hitto-Sumerian "Fruit" Crosses. Other analogous Goat and Deer Stone Crosses, S.S.S., 1, 59, 69, 89, 91, 93, 100; 2, 101, 106.



sacred seals and Phoenician coins, affords still further conclusive evidence of the former widespread prevalence of the cult of Indara or "Andrew" in Early Britain, and of the Barat Catti Phoenician origin of the Britons and Scots.

c    Ib., Nos. 24-27. Another of same from same cave. The Goat or Deer kneels in adoration, or for protection (as in Hitto-Sumerian, Fig. 59, b, c) below tablet containing vestiges of an inscription with trace of an X Cross, and below the double Sun-disc or "spectacles."

d    S.A.S., Pl. 35, 1. Another graving from same cave showing Deer or Goat protected by Sun disc and, "Fruit" Cross and "Spectacles" (latter omitted here through want of space). Cp. Hitto-Phoenician, Fig. 59, d and m.

e    S.S.S., 2, 52. Reverse of Cross from Kirkapoll, Tiree of Early Christian period, which significantly figures the Crucifix, on its face, in the primitive original T form, and not as the True Cross, like the monument itself. Identical scene of Wolves attacking Goat or Deer in Hittite seal, Fig. 59, e, and analogous to Phoenician coins h of Fig. 59, e and f. The man with club stepping down to rescue his deer is Hercules-Tascio as in Phoenician coin h, and in Fig. 59, e, f, where he is seated above the Cross and holding the Cross-sceptre as club, see also g. On opposite face his place is taken by winged St. Michael spearing the Serpent-Dragon (see also top of g), common on pre-Christian Crosses.

f     S.S.S., 1, 127. Ancient Cross from Meigle, Perthshire; showing Goat or Deer protected by the Cross from the Wolf. Cp. Hittite type in Fig. 59, f.

g    S.S.S., 1, 83. Another Tascio-Michael Goat and Cross scene from Glamis in Forfar. The Wolves hold up their head as in Hittite type, Fig. 59, a and e. Again, on top is Hercules-Tascio with his club and holding an object like a ploughshare. And on left is his winged form as Michael the Archangel. Cp. Hittite types in Fig. 59, g, h, k, l and m.

h    E.C.B., 12, 7. Coin of Cunobeline. Tascio (Michael) winged reining up his horse to rescue his Goats.   i   E.C.B., A., 1 and 2. Archaic form of same showing pellet Crosses, X Cross and Rosette Sun. The X or St. Andrew's Cross is clearer in A, 6. Cp. Hittite, Fig. 59, l, and for X Cross m.

k    E.C.B., 16, 2. Wolf fleeing from X or St. Andrew's Cross (decorated as Grain or Fruit Cross) and from Sun discs. Other wolves fleeing from Sun or Sun horse in E.C.B., Pl. E, 6 and 7; F, 15; 4, 12; 11, 13, 14. Cp. Hitto-Phoenician, Fig. 59, m, n, p, for Goats protected by the X or Andrew's Cross.

l     S.S.S., 1, 74 and author's photos of pre-Christian Cross at Meigle, Perthshire. Tascio taming the Lions. Cp. Hittite, Fig. 59, q. In this Briton mon. the lions are duplicated on each side of Tascio, who is robed generally similar to Hittite.

m   S.S.S., 1, 82. Another of same from pre-Christian Cross at Aldbar, Forfar. Cp. Hittite seal, Fig. 59, r, top register, above winged "Celtic" Cross.


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