Chapter XVI


Confirming Hitto-Phoenician Origin of the "Catti" and "Cassi" Coins of Pre-Roman Britain

"His [the Khaitiya's1] sources of subsistence are Arms and the Protection of the Earth. The Guardianship of the Earth is his special province. . . . By intimidating the bad and cherishing the good, the (Khattiya) ruler who maintains the discipline of the different tribes secures whatever region he desires.-- Vishnu Purana Epic2

THE Phoenician Barats' rule and civilization of Britain and its Isles in the pre-Roman period is also attested, I find, by the widespread prevalence of the Phoenician Barats' tribal title of Khatti, Catti, Gad and Kassi, in the old place and river names from south to north-from Cudder Point of Penz-ance with its old Phoenician tin and copper mines, a name now seen to preserve the Punic or Panch title of the Phoenic-ians, to Caith-ness and Shet-land or Land of the Caiths, Khats or Catti, Xats, Shets, Ceti or Scots. The essentially ruling character of the Catti (or Khattiya) race is evidenced by the citation from the Indian epic in the heading, and explains the "Catti" title of the ruling Britons in the pre-Roman period on their coins, as well as the title of their ruling race in their home province, in the south of England, as the "Caty-euchlani" of Ptolemy.

1 See p. 8 for the old Indian Pali form of this tribal name as Khattiyo, which is spelt Kshatriya in the later Sanskrit.
2 V.P., 3, 8; and 3, 87.



Penzance and Cornwall with its Cassi-terides tin islands seem to have been especially associated with the "Cassi" clan title of the Hitto-Phoenician Barats. We have seen that an ancient name for Penzance was "Burrit-on," presumably a form of "Place of the Barats or Brits." And it was clearly the tin-mines of Cornwall and its outlying islands, the Cassi-terides1, which first attracted the Phoenician Barats to Britain in the Bronze Age of the Old World for a supply of tin, the sparsely distributed and most essential constituent for the manufacture of bronze, of which latter, as well as tin, the Phoenicians were the chief manufacturers and distributors; and their chief source of supply appear to have been the Cornish mines in Britain. Some of these mines were presumably worked by the Phoenicians about 2800 B.C. or earlier, as we have seen. From all accounts, it was the "Cassi-terides" mines which were the first worked by them; and that name, as well as the old-world name for "tin" of "Cassi-teros" of Homer and the classic Greeks, or the Sanskrit Kastira,2 appear to preserve the "Cassi" title of that leading clan of the sea-going Phoenicians, as the chief distributors of this invaluable metal of the Old World.

[This origin of that name seems confirmed by the fact that in Attic Greek the name for both tin and the Cassi-terides tin islands is spelt as "Katti-teros" and "Katti-terides," thus using the same equivalency which was used in Britain for the "Cassi" and "Catti" tribes and coins. And in the Indian Sanskrit tradition "Kastira" is tin, and the place-name "Kastira," or "Place of Kast-ra or Tin," was located in the "Land of the Bahikas," a despised outcast tribe who also gave their name to "a sheet of water," and who now seem to be the Peahts or Picts of the Sea of "Victis" or "Icht" in Cornwall. Moreover,

1. These islands, which lay to the west or south-west of Land's End, are now submerged with the general sinking of the south coast of Britain.
2. Tin was called by the Greeks "Cassi-teros," by the ancient Indo- Aryans "Kas-tira," by the Arabs "Kaz-dir," and by the Assyrians and Sumerians, according to Prof. Sayce over forty years ago (S.I., 479) "Kizasadir," "Kasduru or Kazduru"-though these latter terms are not found in the recent Assyrian and Sumerian lexicons. The term "Stan- num," now applied to tin, was originally used, as by Pliny, for an alloy of silver and lead, not tin itself; and the latter (tin) was called by him "White Lead" (Plumbum album), in contradistinction to lead, which was called "Black Lead" (Plumbum nigrum)-Pliny, Nat. Hist., 34, 16; 33, 9.


"Coss-ini" is the title given by a Greek writer1 to the people of the tin-producing country of South-Western Britain.]2

It thus appears probable that the first batch of Phoenicians who worked these Cassiterides mines belonged to the "Cassi" clan to which our Brito-Phoenician Part-olon belonged. But it seems not improbable that Brutus and his Phoenician kinsmen also bore this clan title, which their later descendants, the Briton kings of the late pre-Roman period, stamped upon their "Cassi" coins and gave them their "Cassi" title, as recorded by Caesar. The sea-going Cassi clan had chains of colonies stretching along the Mediterranean, (see map); and Strabo states that the Phoenicians under Cadmus occupied the Cadmus district of Epirus3 with the New Troy on the Thyamis river (whence Brutus came); and the coastal tribe adjoining the Acheron river (whence Brutus sailed, was called "Cass-opaei" with a port called "Cassi-ope" (or Cassi-opo); and similarly opposite the mouth of the river of Phoenice in North Epirus was another port named "Cassi-ope" also of the same tribe.4 And this name "Cassi-ope" appears to mean "Fort of the Cassi tribe."5

Just as we have seen that Brutus and his Phoenician Barat colonists and their descendants bestowed their own ancestral eponymic royal title of Barat or "Brit-on" on many of their early settlements throughout their new home-land in Britain, so also they bestowed, I find, their more general tribal title of Khatti or "Catti" (or "Hitt"-ite or "Goth"), as well as their special Phoenician modification

1. Artemidorus, cited by Stephanos de urbibus: C.B., 1, 1.
2. These people were called- Ostimii by Pytheas (the Ostiaei of Strabo, 2, 4, 3, and 195: 4, 4, I.) and said to "dwell on a promontory which projects considerably into the ocean," and it adjoined "Uxisama." (i.e., Ushant (Strabo, 1, 4, 5), which thus indicates Cornwall.
3 S., 320; 7, 7, 1.
4 Ib., 323: 7, 7, 5.
5. This affix "ope" is also found in Epirus in "Can-ope" on the Acheron river, and in Sin-ope, the chief port of Cappadocia on the Euxine; and in "Parthen-ope" the old name for Naples (S. 654: 14, 2, 10). This latter word "Parthen," i.e., "Barat-ana" or "Brit-ain" is clearly in ethnic series with "Cassi" and means "Place of the Parthen or Barats." This "Ope" is obviously derived from the Akkadian Uppu, "a ring or fence," cognate with Apapu "surround, enclosure," and appa-xum, a "rampart." (M.D., 78, 79, 80), and is presumably the source of the Latin Oppidum, "a town," and English "hoop."


of that title as "Gad" or "Cad" upon many others of their new colonies, rivers and hills in Britain.

The dialectic differences in the spelling of these place-names, as seen in the forms in which they are now fixed in their modern spelling-such as the occasional alteration of the vowel a into e, i, o or u and the t into a d and the initial K softening sometimes into C, G and S and occasionally J - are obviously due partly to local dialectic provincialisms, and partly to individual vagaries in the early phonetic spellings of the same name, as were widely current before the forms were rigidly fixed by printing and the press.

[It is interesting to notice that the not infrequent use of i for the a vowel in the original "Khat" is in series with the Hebrew and Semitic Chaldic corrupt spelling of this name as "Khit" or Hit or Hitt ("Hitt-ite"), and this i dialectic form is seen to be especially common in Kent and Sussex, e.g., in "Kit's Coty." Moreover, the initial K is sometimes dropped out in the later spellings, as in the Hebrew and Semitic Chaldic spelling of this name-just as in the Welsh Keltic dropping of the G in "Gwalia" to form "Wales," and of the G in "Gwith" to form "Wight"-so that an original "Khatt-on" becomes "Hatt-on," and we actually have "Hith" or "Hithe," a seaport of Kent, which thus literally corresponds to the Hebrew "Heth" and "Hitt" for "Khatti." These dialectic variations in the spelling are thus somewhat like the mosaic of architectural styles in an ancient cathedral which has been added to or restored from time to time, so as to display the earlier and more primitive style, side by side, with the styles of the later periods.

Probably some of these dialectic variants are due to later immigrations speaking slightly different provincial dialects of the primitive Sumerian Khatti or Gothic. Indeed this practice of dropping out the initial C (= Kh) is well seen on the Briton coins stamped "Att" or "Atti" for "Catti" (see Fig. 3, p. 6).]

The early settlements of the Hitto-Phoenician Catti or Khatti, as indicated by the incidence of that tribal name, are especially numerous in the South of Britain, which was the first part to be colonized and civilized. The names of the early settlements often merely designate the place simply as "The Settlement of the Catts or Chats," such as "Catt-on," "Cade-by," "Chat-ham" or "Cater-ham" or "Home of the Catti," in contradistinction to the settlements


of the Picts or Wans (or Vans) often in the neighbourhood - as the Catti appear to have often settled in the vicinity of old Pictish villages-bearing such names as "Pitten-den," "Pit-ney," "Pitten-ham," "Pitch-ley" or "Wan-stead," "Wans-den," etc., or "The Den or Dene or Lea of the Picts or Wans." Those "Catti" names bearing distinctive Aryan affixes such as "field," "well," "mill," "hurst," "combe," "bury," "cot" etc., were presumably of somewhat later date, to distinguish these newer settlements from the earlier ones bearing merely the tribal name. The affix "ing" is the Gothic (i.e., Early Briton) tribal affix.

The great number of these early Barat or Brit-on settlements containing the Aryan tribal "Catti" prefix in their names appears to imply that in that early period the Catti ruling race lived apart by themselves in their own settlements, and did not mix or inter-marry with the aboriginal Picts, and hence they used the prefix "Cad" or "Catti" to racially distinguish their early towns from the settlements of the non-Aryan aborigines. This would also explain the Chronicle record that Brutus, after building his new capital, "made choice of the citizens who were to inhabit it."

These "Catti" series of early place, river and hill names in Britain, imposed by Brutus and his Phoenician Barats and their descendants, often designate sites upon the old so-called "Roman" roads, and where are found prehistoric remains, funereal barrows with their cultural objects of the "Late Stone" and Bronze Ages. They thus disclose for the first time, along with the "Barat" and "Cassi" series, the hitherto unknown racial character and name of the authors of these "prehistoric" barrows and Bronze Age weapons and implements, namely, Aryan Barat or "Catti" Hitto-Phoenicians or Early Britons.

From "New Troy" or London these "Catti" names, in their various dialectic forms, radiate south and westwards as follows:-

   Kent :  Cat-heim or Cat-hem (or "Home of the Catti,"
             from Gothic heim, "home"), the ancient
             Briton name for Dover.1

1. cf. T. W. P., 148.
 Kent  (coast.) : Chat-ham, with many prehistoric remains of
                    Stone and Bronze Ages1 on Watl-ing
                    Street (1, 339).2
                  Keith-Coty, modern "Kit's Coty," south of
                    Chatham, with prehistoric remains and
                    Briton coins,3 and traditionally
                    associated with the Briton king Cati-gern (1, 331).
                    And compare the "Ketti" menhir in 
                    Gower Caermarthen.
                  Chid-ing, with sacred stone near Tonbridge (1, 332).
                  Chitt-en-den, with Briton coins.4
                  Cud-ham or Chud-ham.
                  Sitt-ing-bourne, with Bronze Age remains5
                    and Briton coins, on Watling Street.6
                  Had-low, near Tonbridge.
                  Hith and Hith-haven, modern Hythe (or
                   "Place  of  the  Hitts or Heth, i.e., Hitt-ites"), 
                    one of the Cinque Ports, with Bronze Age
                    remains,7 on ancient mouth of Rother
                    (1, 321),8  and terminus of "Stoney
                    Street"  branch  of Watling Street, and possibly
                    the port at which Caesar landed.

   Surrey :      Cater-ham, ancient Keter-ham. 
                 Cattes-hull, modern Cates-hill, on Wye, near
                   Godalming, former village of early Saxon
                   kings (1, 242).
                 Gatton, on Mole, tributary of Thames, with
                   Roman coins (1, 242, 252).
                 God-elming, modern "Godalming," with early
                   Briton  coins,9 and Saxon remains, on
                   Stane Street (1, 248).
                 God-stone (1, 252).
                 Chidd-ing-fold, near Roman Stane Street.
                 Shotter-mill, ditto.

   Sussex :      Cats Street, near Heathfield.
                 Cats-field, near Bexhill.

1 At Chatham and adjoining Otterham and Hoo, Stone Age remains, and Bronze Age at Hoo and Rochester. W.P.E., 63 and 105.
2 The numbers enclosed within brackets refer to Camden's Britannia, 2nd ed. Gough.
3 E.C.B., 122, 197, 354.
4 Ib., 95, 422.
5 W.P.E., 105.
6 E.C.B., 190.
7 Ib., 105. Remains at neighbouring Haynes Hill.
8 The ancient port is now left dry by raising of the beach.
9 E.C.B., 50, 64, 83.

   Sussex (cont.)  Cotten-den Street, near Ticehurst, on ancient
                   Chid-ham, near Chichester, off Roman Stane
                   Chit-hurst, near Midhurst.
                   Chitt-ing-ton, north of Lewes.
                   Chitt-ing-ly, near Hurstmonceux.
                   Gotham and Sedles-combe.
                   Sid-les-ham, on Selsey harbour, with Briton
                     coins,1 and Sommer-by adjoining.

   Hants :        Cad-land, near Hythe on Southampton
                    Water (1, 189).
                  Chater-ton, in Portsmouth (1, 199).
                  Chitte  Forest,  on  Icknield  Roman Way(1, 205).
                  Hithe, modern Hythe on Southampton Water.
                  Gnith,  the  "Quiktesis" of Ptolemy,
                    modern Wight (1, 174).
                  Gat-comb, with Bronze Age remains, in Wight2
                  Gads Hill, with ancient "camps" and earth-
                    works, in Wight (1, 174 and 178).

   Wilts :        Cad-worth and Cawdon Hundred, on Salisbury
                    Plain, south of Stonehenge.
                  Cad-ley, with adjoining Chide, on Icknield Way.
                  Chad-ham (1, 158-9).
                  Chadden-ton, south of Purton.
                  Cuite-ridge, west of Bratton (Eddington).
                  Chitt-erne St. Mary, with two Early Briton
                  Chid-bury  Hill  or  Sid-bury,  with  prehistoric
                    earthworks and many barrows (1, 158).
                  Chute and Chute Causeway, on Roman Road to
                  Cod-ford,  St. Peters and Parish, on Salisbury Plain,
                    with prehistoric earthworks and "castle"4 
                    (1, 149).
                  Sid-bury, north of Tidworth, with Stone Age

   Dorset :     Cathers-ton, at Lyme Regis.
                Catt-stoke, on Frome, with prehistoric earth-
                  works (1, 68).
                Chet-nole, north of same.
                Chett-le, with "prehistoric village" and
                Chidi-ock, near Brid-port. (1, 74).
                Hod Hill, with early iron bars as

1 E.C.B., Selsey, 66, 90.
2 W.P.E., 105, at Arre-ton Downs.
3 Ib., 280.
4 Ib., 250.
5 Ib., 251.
6 Ib., 157, and 277.
7 H.A.B., 251.

  Devon :   Catte-down Cave (preserving an old place- or
              hill-name "Catte-down"), near Plymouth,
              with Stone Age remains.1

            Cad-bury or Cad-bery, south-west of Tiverton,
              with prehistoric and Roman remains (154)2
            Cad-bury at Ottery (1, 35) and on N. Dart-moor.

            Chett-le, with prehistoric barrows.3
            Chid-ley, on Teign (1, 35).
            Chud-leigh, on Teign (1, 53).
            Cud-lip, on Tavy, on Dartmoor, above the
              copper mines.
            Gid-leigh, on Dartmoor, near Cromlech at Brad-ford.
            Chittle-hampton  at S. Moulton, on Taw (1, 32).
            Sid-mouth, with prehistoric barrows.4 (1, 57, 59).
            Sid-bury, with prehistoric settlements.5

   Cornwall:  Cadd-on Point, with prehistoric cliff-castle
                and earthworks.6
             Cudder Point, in Penzance Bay, south of St. Michael's Mount.
             Cad-son-bury, with prehistoric earthworks, near
             Gotha Castle, near Phoebe's Point, St. Austell, with
             God-olcan,  modern  God-olphan,  near  Land's  End, famous
               for its tin mines; and the lordship of same has arms with 
               two-headed spread eagle (1, 4) of Hitto-Sumerians.
             Sith-ney parish, including Helston (1, 16).
             Ouethi-ock, near Prideaux, with prehistoric

Northwards from "New Troy" or London these old "Catti" names radiate through the adjoining counties to the Midlands and are prolonged into Northumbria. The later old home-kingdom of the paramount Briton king, Cassivel-launus, or Caswallon or Cadwallon, the "Land of the Caty-euchlani" of Ptolemy, is rich in the Cat, Cass, and Gad Hitto-Phoenician ethnic titles for place and river names, just, as we have seen, it was in regard to the Barat series. This central Briton kingdom extended from the north bank

1 H.A.B., 60.
2 Ib., 229.
3 W.P.E., 157.
4 Ib., 157.
5 Ib., 230.
6 Ib., 226.
7 Ib., 226.
8 Ib., 226.
9 Ib., 227.


of the Thames, from the western border of New Troy or London, northwards to the Wash and Humber; and thus included the modern counties of Middlesex (West), Herts, Bucks, Oxford, Bedford, Northampton, Huntingdon, Cambridge, Nottingham, Rutland, Leicester and Lincoln. (For details see Appendix III.)

Similarly, from Somerset in the Severn Valley, we find, a series of the early "Catti" names radiates through Cambria or Wales to some extent, but more freely through Cumbria to Dun Barton (or "Fort of the Britons") with its Cumbrae Isles. The very free distribution of this Catti and Barat title in Somerset or "Seat of the Somers" and in Gloster, with its relative absence in Wales and mainly confined there to the Severn coast, suggests that Somerset and Gloster, with the northern bank of the Severn estuary, from Caerleon or Isca on the Usk to Gower, formed the real Cymry Land; and that the title Cymri or Cambria for Wales and the Welsh people was presumably a later designation, after the non-Aryan Welsh Silures and cognate Pictish tribes had obtained their Aryan "Cymry" speech from their Aryan Catti Barat rulers and civilizing colonists of Somerset and Gloster in the Severn Valley. (The detailed distribution of the "Catti" names in this area is given in Appendix III.)

Similarly also, from Dun-Barton and the Frith of Clyde, at the top of which Ptolemy significantly located the "Gadeni" tribe (i.e., the Gad or Phoenicians) we have Catti or Gad names in Arran (or "Land of the Arri or Arya-ns"), the "Kumr Isle" of the Norse1-with its prehistoric Stone Circles and barrows on the flanks of Goat Fell, the ancient Kil-Michael and Cata-col with the legend of an ancient Gothic sea-king slain by the aboriginal chief Fion-gal, the Fein.2 And in the adjoining Bute is Kil-Chattan or "Church of Chattan," with its prehistoric standing stones, facing the Cumbrae Isles. In Glasgow an ancient boundary

1. Arran (called by the Norse Kumy ey-ar or "Isle of the Kumr or Cymri" and Sudr-eyiar or "Southern Isle") is anciently spelt Aran, Arane, Aren, as well as Arran-see J. McArthur, Antiq. of Arran.
2. New Statistical Account of Scotland, "Arran."


in the records for "Redding the Marches" was "Cayttis' dyke."1 This series of Catti or Gad names also stretches, I find, in series with the Barat names across the narrow waist of Scotland to the Forth to Hadd-ing-ton and Perth, and onwards north along the East Coast to the Don Valley of our Newton Stone and to Caith-ness or anciently Cat-ness (or Nose of the Caiths or Cats) and to Shet-land (or Land of the Shets or Ceti), where, as we have seen, I find actual inscriptional Ogam evidence for the use of Xattui or Khattui as the "prehistoric" name of the old capital of "Shet-land," also spelt "Zet-land" and "Het-land."2 (For details of this series of Khatti names see Appendix III.)

The "Cassi" series of titles for place-names, on the other hand, is necessarily much more limited, as the Cassi or Kassi were a dynastic clan of the Barat Catti ruling tribe who followed the religious reform of their ancestral priest-king Kasi in adhering to the purer monotheistic Sun-.worship of the founder of the First Dynasty of Aryan kings.3 We have already seen that the first Phoenicians who worked the tin mines in the Cassi-terides of Cornwall, as well as Brutus himself, were probably of the Cassi clan of the Catti or Hitt-ites, as Part-olon also was.

Besides the occurrence of this eponymic title in "Cassiterides"-a name which seems repeated in several of the inland place-names here appended4-I find the following ancient place-names have presumably this "Cassi" element in divers dialectic forms:-

   Herts :    Cassio-bury, seat of modern Earls of Essex
               near Verulam, the capital of Cassi-vellau-
               nus, with many Briton coins in district.5
             "Cashio Hundred," extending through Herts
               from  south  to  north,  and  including
  Bedford :   Keysoe, near old camp and Cadbury Lion and
               Perten Hall.

1. Glasgow Herald, 24th April, 1923.
2. Gazetteer Scot. 2,715.
3. Details in Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.
4. It occurs in Cornwall, Wilts, etc., as seen in the list, in places not associated with the tradition of any Roman castra or camp.
5. E.B.C. Verulam, 119, 251, 253, 257, etc., and St. Albans, 234, etc.

   Lincoln :     Caus-enn or Gausennae of Romans (2, 353).
   Leicester :   Coss-ing-ton, on R. Soar, off Foss Road.
   Bucks :       Ches-ham, on the Chess, with ancient earth-
                 works and circle1 and Briton coins.2
                 Chis-beach, north of Hambleden.

   Middlesex :   Chis-wick on Thames. It was presumably
                 part of the staked ford held by Cassi-
                 vellaunus (as described in Appendix V).

   Kent :        Gos-hall, near Ash, with Briton coins.3

   Sussex :      Ciss-bury and Cissbury Hill, near Worthing,
                 with Stone and Bronze Age remains.4
                 (1, 270, 289).

   Hants :       Cos-ham, at neck of Portsmouth Island.
                 Gos-port, adjoining Portsmouth (1, 200).

   Wilts :       Cos-ham, ancient royal village of Saxons
                   (1, 130).
                 Casterly "Camp," north of Great Bedwyn,
                   on Salisbury Plain, with ancient earth-

   Devon :       Caws-and Beacon, with early stone cist.6
   Cornwall :    (Cassiter Street in Bodmin).
                 Chysoyster, with prehistoric village.7
                 Gudzh promontory, in Helston Bay.

   Monmouth :    Cas, on Severn.

   Cheshire :    Goostrey, with barrows.8
   Cumberland :  Gos-forth on Irth River, with pre-Christian
                   Cross, etc.
                 Kes-wick, with Stone Circle and old copper
                   mines (3, 422, 435), under Sca-Fell.

   Northumberland : Gos-forth, or Ges-forth, near Roman Vindo-
                      bala (Rutchester) (3, 513).
                    Gosse-ford, near Wallsend (3, 495) .
                    Caistron, near Hepple, with prehistoric earth-

   Haddington : Gos-ford House, opposite Inch Keith

   Caithness :  Keiss, on east coast, between Wick and
                 John o'Groats, with early stone Cists and
                 Cairns containing prehistoric "Chief's Cist"
                 and cairn, with  tall, long-headed chief, as
                 opposed to skeletons of the short-statured
                 aborigines, with underground "Pict dwellings" in 

1 W.P.E., 225.
2 E.B.C., 218.
3 E.C.B., 207.
4 W.P.E., 106, 248.
5 Ib., 250.
6 Ib., 196.
7 Ib., 215.
8 Ib., 154.
9 Ib., 241.
10 See L.H.C., 15, etc.


In Ireland, also, there is a considerable series of these old "Catti" and "Cassi" place-names in old sites, which will now be obvious to the reader.

We now see more clearly than before why the pre-Roman Briton kings, inheriting such a celebrated "Catti" and "Cassi" ancestry-an eastern branch of the latter royal clan having given to Babylonia its famous "Cassi" or "Kassite" Dynasty for a period of over six centuries, from about 1800 B.C. to 1170 B.C., as well as our King Part-olon, the "Kazzi" or "Qass" of the Newton Stone monument in Scotland-should have proudly stamped these treasured ancestral titles on their coins in Early Britain.

Of these pre-Roman Briton coins, in gold, electrum, tin or or bronze, bearing, as we shall see later, solar symbols of the Sun, Sun-Cross, Sun-Horse and the Sun-Eagle or "Phoenix"-as the Aryan-Cassi-Phoenicians were pre eminently Sun-worshippers-we have already seen examples of some of those stamped with the titles "Catti" and "Cas(si)" (see Figs. 3 and 11, pp. 6 and 48).

The name "Catti" on these coins is conjectured by the chief authority on Early British coins to be the personal name of several otherwise unknown Briton "princes," who, he supposes, bore the same name;1 whilst, on the contrary, an earlier writer, the Rev. Beale Poste, supposed that it was not a personal name, but the title of an ancient British "province, state or community."2 My new historical evidence now discloses that the latter view was more in keeping with the freshly elicited facts. That title "Catti" is now seen to designate the dynastic tribe of ruling Briton kings; and to be the literal equivalent of "Khatti" or "Hitt-ite," which was the racial title of the Phoenician Barat Aryans who worked the tin mines in Cornwall, and whose descendants or kinsmen established themselves in the interior in South Britain as Catti kings, and afterwards extended their civilizing and Aryanizing rule throughout the British Isles.

The "Cassi" or "Cas" stamped coins (see Fig. 11, p. 48) are the same general type as the "Catti," with the same

1. Sir J. Evans, E.C.B., 141
2. P.B.C., 283.


solar symbols, though strangely all reference to these "Cassi" coins is omitted by Evans in his monograph. Coins of this Catti-Cassi type, actually bearing the legends "Catti" or "Cas," are unfortunately very rare, as, being usually of gold, such coins have presumably been melted up by the finders to make jewellery, in order to escape the penalties incident to treasure trove, as remarked by Beale and others. But other later coins of this same type bearing kings' names and other legends (e.g., "Tascio," see later) are fairly numerous. They are found from Cornwall through Devon and Somerset and far up the Severn Valley to near Wroxeter. They are also found from Kent to Northumberland, and a few even in Scotland. They are most common, however, in the old home-kingdom of the later paramount Briton kings, who were at the time of Caesar represented by Cassi-vellaunus, namely, the Land of the Caty-euchlani or "Catuellani," from the Thames to the Humber. Thus these early Briton coins are found in those regions where we have discovered the widespread evidence of ancient Catti rule surviving in the many ancient and pre-Roman Briton place-names, with prehistoric remains there. The absence of kings' names upon the earlier Catti or Cas Briton coins seems to be explained by the fact that the early Briton kings were, like the early Phoenicians, members of a commonwealth of confederated Aryan city-states which presumably used the coins in common.

The current notion also that the Early Britons derived their coinage by imitating a stater of Philip II. of Macedonia (360-336 B.C.)1 can no longer be maintained. Indeed, one of the chief advocates of this old theory was latterly forced to confess, on further observation, that the Macedonian stater could not be the sole "prototype" from which the Early Briton kings modelled their coinage.2 But more than this, it must now be evident to the unbiased observer that the Early British coins, with their symbolism, exhibit nothing whatever Macedonian in their type. The horseman and

1. A theory re-advocated by Evans (E.C.B., 24, etc.), and adopted by Rhys (R.C.B., XV, etc.), and by Rice Holmes (H.A.B., 248, etc.).
2. E.C.B., Supplement, 424.


chariot, which is sometimes figured on the Early Briton coins, and often as a winged or Pegasus horse, is by no means Macedonian in origin. It appears on coins and in glyptic art long anterior to the Macedonian period; and we have seen that Brutus came from the Macedonian frontier, within which was a colony of Parth-eni; so that the Britons doubtless derived that symbol independently from the same remote Barat source from which the Macedonians derived its unwinged form. And there is no trace on the Macedonian coins of the many solar Phoenician symbols which are stamped on the coins of the Britons, as we shall see later.

In support of this Macedonian theory of Briton coinage, it is noteworthy that a type of coin was arbitrarily selected by its advocates, which is admittedly not Briton but "Gaulish." It is a type found commonly in Gaul, and when found in Britain it is more especially associated with the Gaulish tribe of Atrebates in Berkshire and other places inhabited by that tribe, who are usually identified with the "Belgae" immigrants, who, Caesar says, had recently before his arrival settled in the South of Britain. So obviously "Greek" or Macedonian was this Gaulish type of coin that the fact was already noted in Gough's Camden1 and by Poste.2 But the confusion of argument in rearing upon this Gaulish type the Macedonian theory of British coinage is obvious by the statements that "this [Gaulish] type is beyond all doubt the earliest of the British series,3 and derived through Gaul,"4 yet on the same page this conclusion seems contradicted by admitting that "the British coins are in all probability earlier than the Gaulish"5-which latter are placed at 150-100 B.C. as opposed to the earliest British, which he assigns to "a date somewhere between 150 and 200 B.C."6

The Ear of Corn, the symbolic Aryan- Phoenician meaning of which we shall see later, so frequently figured on the Catti-Cassi coins of the Early Britons (see Fig. 3 and later), and of Cunobeline,7 and on Phoenician and Phoenicianoid coins

1 In the text "Greek" is specified (i, cxiv); but the Index (p. 433) says "Macedonian."
2 P.B.C., 7.
3 E.C.B., 25.
4 Ib., 26.
5 Ib., 26.
6 Ib., 26.
7 See A.A.C., Pl. xxiii. Figs., 1, 2, 3 and 4.


of Spain,1 and in the coins of Phoenicia and Cilicia,2 and absent in the Macedonian stater, is figured both as a solitary ear of corn and as crossed ears to form the sign of the Sun-Cross, as we shall see later. For the Barat Catti and Cassi, although seamen, were also essentially Aryan agriculturalists; and, as we have seen, their kinsmen, the Cassis of Babylonia, ploughed and sowed as a religious rite under the Sign of the Cross (see Fig. 12, p. 49). Now, the solitary ear of corn on the Briton coins is exactly paralleled in design in the early coin of Metapontum in the Taranto Gulf of Southern Italy, of about 600-480 B.C., which was presumably a port of the Phoenicians.3 And we find it in the Phoenician coins of Cilicia, and in the early Trojan amulets associated with Hitto-Sumerian inscriptions (see later Figures).

[This sea-port of Aletapontum was traditionally founded by Nestor on his return from the Trojan War;4 and it stands only about 200 miles due west, across the mouth of the Adriatic from Epirus, whence Brutus came with his bride. Nestor, significantly, moreover, was a friend and associate of Peirithoos (i.e., Brutus), and assisted the latter along with Coronus Caineus (i.e., Corineus) in rescuing Peirithoos' bride from the Kentaurs of Epirus. Metapontum, or Metabum, was a famous ship-building port, as well as noted for its agriculture and "golden corn,"5 on the borders of the Bruttii land of S. Italy,6 and appears to have been actually within the Land of the Bruttii,7 who, we have seen, were Barat Phoenicians. These facts, therefore, whilst disclosing an early and presumably Phoenician source for the Ear of Corn device on the Early Briton coins-the Corn being part of the Phoenician solar symbolism, as we shall see-suggests that Nestor (name in series with that of the Trojan-Phoenician king Antenor and his son Agenor) was himself a Phoenician, and that his city-port

1. A.A.C., Pl. iii, Figs. 1, 2, 5, and Pl. iv, Fig. 8; Pl. vi, Figs. 3, 6, 9.
2. Even in the Greco-Roman period. See H.C.P., cxx, 43, 113; and H.C.C., 16, 164.
3. See Fig. 5, Plate V in G.A.C. This coin bears on its obverse the same Ear of Corn design in "incused" form, which feature is assumed to imply that the coin was "restruck on a coin of Corinth" (G.A.C., 204 and 459). But it appears to me more probable that this "incusion" is a survival of the "punch-marking," which was the rule in the earliest coins, struck a century or so before this period, and that the coin was entirely independent of Corinth. Cf. S, 222: 5, 2, 5; and 264. Nestor was the son of Neleus, king of Pylos in S.W. Greece, south of Epirus, and accompanied Hercules in his voyage for the Golden Fleece.
4. S., 264: 6, 1, 15.
5. Ib., 264.
6. Ib., 253: 6, 1, 3.
7. Ib., 254: 6, 1, 4.


Metapontum with its ship-building trade was a colony of the Phoenicians; and that this coin with the Ear of Corn as in the Briton coins, was Phoenician in origin as well as Phoenician in symbolic solar meaning, as seen later.]

Vestiges also of the name of the Catti, Khatti or Gad tribal title of the Aryan- Phoenician civilizers of Britain clearly survive in several personal surnames of the present day, whose bearers presumably inherit that Aryan-Phoenician title by patrilinear descent.1 Thus, for example, the following surnames are more or less clearly of this origin and varying only in different phonetic forms of spelling the same name:- Keith, Scott (from Xatti), Gait, Gates, Cotes, Coats, Coutts, Cotton, Cotteril, Cheatle, Cuthell, Cautley, Caddell, Cawdor, Guthrie, Chadwick, Cadman and Caedmon, Gadd, Gadsby, Geddes, Kidd, Kitson, Judd, Siddons, Seton, etc., and the lowland Scottish clan of Chattan. And amongst the Cassi series-the Kazzi or Qass of the Newton Stone-are Case, Casey, Cassels, Cash, Goss, Gosse, and the still-persisting French term for the Scot of "Ecossais." And similarly with the surnames derived from Barat or Prat, Gioln or 'Alaun, Sumer and Mur, Mor or Muru-e.g., Barret, Burt, Boyden, etc., Gillan, Cluny, Allan, etc., Summers, Cameron (of Moray-Firth), etc., Marr, Murray, Martin, etc.

1. Surnames are generally stated to have been first introduced into Britain by the Normans, i.e. by a branch of the Nordic Gothic Aryans. Yet there are many classic instances of family surnames in ancient history, patrician and other. It is in any case probable that, when the fashion of surnames was made obligatory in Britain those families who were so entitled adopted the name of their tribe clan or subclan, which indeed we find as a fact many of them did. Such modern surnames thus seem to supply a presumption of some racial significance through the father's side, despite the intermixture through more or less intermarriage with other racial elements.

FIG. 25B. Catti coin inscribed Ccetio from Gaul.
(After Poste.)

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