Chapter XV


Disclosing also Phoenician Source of "Mor," "Cumber," "Cymr" and "Somer" Names
"The principal nations of the Barats are the Kurus [Syrians] and the able Panch [Phoenic-ians]." - Ancient Indian Epics.1

THE ancient Aryan Barat tradition that "the whole world" was conquered by "the able Panch," or Phoenicians, has already been cited in the heading of page 1. And the ancient Aryan custom of taking their forefather Barat's name as a personal and tribal title (cited in the heading of chap. VII) has already been cited and further instanced by King Brutus or Peirithoos, properly "Barat," and King Part-olon of the Newton Stone monument, both calling themselves and their new colonies after the name of their most famous forefather, King Barat,2 the Khatti or Catti or "Hitt-ite" or Goth; the most celebrated ancestral king of the Hitto-Sumerians or Phoenicians; and some scores of Part-olon's descendants in North Britain also took that cherished old ancestral name.

Now, I find throughout Britain evidence of the Phoenician Barat rule and Civilization of these islands, in long pre-Roman times, exists widespread all over the country, in the ancient ethnic and dynastic "Barat" and "Catti" titles in the old place and river names of Britain, from farthest south to farthest north; and in the "Somer" and Mor, Amorite names.

1 Vishnu Purana, 2, 3 and other Puranas. V.P., 2, 132, etc.
2 In Sanskrit Barat is not spelt with a final expressed a; and in the Hindi vernacular it is pronounced "Barat."


Ancient racial, place and river names are found to be amongst the most imperishable of human things. This persistence of ancient place-names has been fully recognized by the leading archaeologists as a "safe" means of recovering ancient history. Thus Sir F. Petrie remarks with reference to the ancient place-names in Palestine and Phcenicia as found in the Amarna cuneiform letters of about 1400 B.C. -

"When we see the names Akka, Askaluna, Biruta, Gazri, Lakish, Qidesu, Tsiduna, Tsur, Urashalim [that is the modern "Akka" or Acre, Ascalon, Beirut, Gezer, Lachish, Kadesh, Sidon, Sour, (the "Tyre" of Europeans) and "Jerusalem"], all lasting with no change - or only a small variation in the vowels - down to the present day . . . it needs no further proof that ancient names may be safely sought for in the modern map."1

By the survey of these persistent ancient names surviving in the modern maps, we thus discover the early locations and distribution of the Barat Phoenician in their colonizing penetration of Early Britain. These names originally designated, presumably, isolated settlements and ports of the Barats, which were simply called "Barat town" in contrast to the aboriginal village in the neighbourhood. (See next chapter for the place-affixes to the tribal name Barat or Brit.)

We shall now survey briefly, in the light of our discoveries, the occurrence in the maps of this dynastic clan-title of Barat or "Brit-on" bestowed by these Brito-Phoenicians upon many of the early sites selected by them for colonization on the coast and in the interior of Britain, when they began to penetrate the land and form permanent settlements therein. As most of these "Barat" place-names presumably designated early settlements of the ruling clan, as attested by the very ancient remains at most of them, they afford, along with those of the "Catti" series of the tribal title, some clue to the routes and avenues by which this civilizing penetration was effected, and also a clue to some of the chief early centres from which the Aryan Civilization was diffused over the land. Most of these early "Barat" centres have now

1 Sir W. F. Petrie, Syria and Egypt 15.

become relatively insignificant, through being swamped by the swarms of later new towns founded on new lines of traffic to suit new industries, iron, coal and other manufactures, but some of them still retain their ancient importance under their old name, as Burton-on-Trent, Barton-on-Humber, Dun-barton, Part-ick and Perth, whilst others, such as Barden (Norwich) have changed their names, or, as "Bristol," (formerly Caer Brito) are now scarcely recognizable.

We also discover that the "Cymry" (pronounced Cumri) or Cumbers of Wales, Cumberland, and the North Cumbrae; of Strath-Clyde appear to derive their name from the alternative tribal epithet of the Phoenicians, namely, "Sumer." This latter was a term occasionally used by the early ruling race in Babylonia, the "Sumerians" of modern Assyriologists, and who, I find, were Phoenicians.

This identity of the Cymry or Cumbers with the "Sumers," suggested by my discovery in various ancient mining centres in Britain and especially in the land of the Cymry or Cumbers of several scribings in the old "Sumerian" script of Babylonia (see later), is confirmed by finding that "Sumerian" is the basis of the British or "English" language, of which we shall find many further instances incidentally, as we proceed. It is also confirmed by the Welsh Cymry traditional account of the arrival of King Brut or "Prydain" (as his name is dialectically spelt in Welsh) in Britain, as found in the Welsh Triads, which confirm from an altogether independent source the tradition preserved in the Chronicles of Nennius and Geoffrey.

The First Triad,1 says: "Three names have been given to the Isle of Britain from the beginning . . . 'Clas Merddin [literally, The Digging of the Mers or Mor-ites ?] and afterwards Fel Ynys. When it was put under government by Prydain, son of Aedd-the-Great, it was called 'Inis Prydain,' and there was no tribute paid to any but to the race of the Cymry, because they first possessed [or invaded] it."

The Sixth Triad, supplementing this one, says: "First Hu Gadarn, originally conducted the nation of the Cymry into the Isle of Britain. They came from the Summer Country, which is called Deffro-Bani, and it was over the hazy sea2

1 Welsh Triads (Trioedd Ynys Prydain) in Myvyrian Archaeology of Wales, vols. 2 and 3.
2 "Hazy or Misty Sea" is a recognized poetic name for the Mediterranean used by Homer (Iliad, 23, 743).


that they came to the Isle of Britain and to Llydaw [Lud-dun ?]1 where they continued."2

The different dialectic and phonetic spelling of the same names, Prut, Prydain, Briton and Britain we have already seen; and especially the widely-varied ways in which the Anglo-Saxons spelt "Britain" and "Briton," which accounts for a number of the present variations in spelling the "Barat" element in the place-names in question.

Starting from Brutus' or Barat's capital of "New Troy or London," we find Barat or Brit-on names of early Briton settlements radiating throughout the various home counties and the South of England and the Midlands. And significantly they often possess early Bronze Age and "ancient village" remains, and are largely found on the pre‑Roman arterial roads, many of which, having been repaired and used by the Romans, are now called "Roman" roads. Proceeding westwards and to the south we find the following3 -

   In Kent :        Bred-hurst, near Kits' Coty dolmen and the
                      "Roman" Watling Street.
                    Bord-en, on Watling Street, near Milton.
                    Britten-den, adjoining Newenden, at ancient
                      mouth of the Rother (1, 322)4

1 "Llydaw" is usually conjectured to mean "Sea-coast" and thought by Celtic scholars to be Armorica in Brittany (Lobineau, Histoire de Bretagne, 5, 6); but it now appears to be probably Lud-dun or "London."
2 Here the Welsh Triads record that "Prydain," i.e., the Cymric spelling of Brutus or Barat as "Brit-on," gave his name to Britain and that he was of the race of the Cymry. The Sixth Triad, in supplementing this information, gives Prydain's personal name as "Hu-Gad-arn," i.e., "Hu the Gad or Phoenician," and the affix Arn is obviously "Aryan," and cognate with the Cymric Aran, "high," the Cornish Arhu, "to command," and the Irish-Scot Aire, "a chief or prince," literally, "exalted one," which also, as seen later, is the literal meaning of "Aryan" in the Indo-Persian languages. The land from which he came, "Deffro-Bani," seems to be perhaps the Welsh contracted corruption of the compound name "Epirus-Pandosia," i.e., the very place in Greece whence, we have seen, Brutus or Peirithoos sailed to Britain - the prefixed D may have been a mistake of an earlier copyist, though D is sometimes introduced in Welsh spelling, thus "Gwydion" is the Welsh spelling of "Gawain" of the British Arthur legend. We now see why the elder Gildas called the whole of Britain "Cambre" or "The Land of the Cambers, Cumbers, or Cymry," i.e., Sumers.
3 The numbers enclosed within brackets refer to the pages in Camden's Britannia, 2nd ed. Gough.
4 See previous note.


   Sussex : Burton, between Midhurst and Chichester (or
            Regnum of Romans), with prehistoric
            barrows,1 and near the Roman Stane Street
            (1, 288).

           "Brighton" the "Brighthelm-ton" of the
            Anglo-Saxons suggests a possible "Briton,"
            as the old priory and market-house is
            called "Barth-olomew" and the adjoining
            parish is "Kymere" (i.e., Cymyr) (see
            Camden 1, 290, 291.) It has old Stone and
            Bronze Age remains2 and Briton coins.3

  Surrey :  Burton. Dear Roman Stane Street from Chichester.

  Hants :   Barton Cliff on Chichester Bay, with Somerford adjoining.
            Burton Stacey, on Roman Icknield Street.
            Briten-den former name of Silchester, the
            ancient "Vindonia" of Romans and capital
            of the Segonti tribe, with adjoining river
            called "Lod-don" (1, 171; 322).
            Barton, with prehistoric remains.4
            Buriton, with prehistoric earthworks,5 and
            adjoining Boyd-can with Bordean Cross.
            Broughton, with prehistoric urn burials.6
            Barton and Barton Point, in Wight, opposite
            Gos-port and Portsmouth (1, 210).
            Brad-ing, on the Brading Downs in Wight.
            ancient town with Roman remains.

   Wilts :  Bradon Forest, with 2 Partons and 2 Somer-fords on its north
            and south.
            Burton, south of "Wans' Dyke," near Devizes, with
            Cummer-ford on the Roman road to the north.
            Brit-ford on Avon, S. of Salisbury, with prehistoric
            "camps" and Stone Age remains,7 in
            Cad-worth Hundred.
            Bratton, near Eddington on Salisbury Plain, with prehistoric
            carthworks and barrows.8
            Broden-Slack, with prehistoric earthworks.9
            Port-on, on Roman road to Silchester from Sarum or
            Salisbury, S.E. of "Cad-bury Camp" and Cor-Gawr
            or "Stone-henge" ("Hanging Stones"), with numerous
            graves of Early Briton kings and nobles and their families of
            the Bronze Age.

1 W.P.E., 168.
2 Ib., 64 and 106.
3 E.C.B., 206.
4 W.P.E., 62.
5 Ib., 235.
6 Ib., 162.
7 Ib., 64.
8 Ib., 169, 170, 250.
9 Ib., 250.

Dorset :   Brit-port or Brute-port, the old name
           of Brid port, at end of Roman Road ("Fosse Way,")
           and formerly an appanage of the Crown
           with many barrows (1.65).
           Bride‑head with many prehistoric barrows.1
           Burton and Burton Cliff, to east of Bridport.
           Portis-ham, east of latter.
           Brad-ford, at Dorchester, on Roman road.
           Burton, west of above.

Devon :    Barton, Eddon, on north of Dartmoor.
           Brad-ford, on Dartmoor, with cromlech.
           Brid-ford, at Moreton Hampstead.
           Broad-bury, near Okehampton, with barrows.2

Cornwall : Bartine, in St. Just parish, with Stone Circles
           (1, 19) and well sacred to Euny (Oannes?).3
           Pyidden, near St. Buryan, with menhir.4
           Braddock, with prehistoric interments.5
           Burrit-on, a former name of Penzance.6

Northwards also we find these early Barat or Brit-on names radiating through the home-counties and Midlands, as, for instance:-

Essex :    Prittle-well, near Southend, with prehistoric
           Berden, near Clavery (2, 142).
           Bart-low Hills (2, 140).

Suffolk :  Breten-ham on the Breton tributary of the
           Stour, and the Com-Bretonium of An-toninus (2, 154).
           Barton (2, 161).
           Barton Mere, near Bury St. Edmunds, with
           Bronze Age prehistoric village.8
Herts :    Pirton, in Cashio Hundred, on Icknield Way.
           Brydens Hill, north of Elstre.
           Barton Green, with Stone Age remains.9
           Burden Bury on Verulam R. north of St.
             Albans, on Watling Street.

Bucks :    Brit-well, near Farnham.
           Barton, with "London Stone" to the S.W.
             of Buckingham.
           Bourton, near latter.

1 W.P.E.,158.
2 Ib., 157.
3 L.S., 219.
4 W.P.E., 198.
5 Ib., 154 and 228.
6 L.H.P., 78.
7 W.P.E., 202.
8 Ib., 279 and H.A.B., 151.
9 W.P.E., 62.


   Oxfords :      Barton; east of Oxford.
                  Bartholomews (St.), adjoining Oxford.
                  Burton, near Hampton.
                  Brad‑well, near latter.

   Bedfords :     Barton, with Barton Hills, near Hitchin, on
                    Icknield Way.
                  Pirton, ditto.

   Northamptons : Barton Latimer, north of Pytchley

   Cambridges :   Barton, near Cambridge, on road from Oxford.
                  Bart‑low (2, 140).

   Norfolk:       Barden River, tributary of Yare, at Norwich,
                  Venta Icenorum of Romans (2, 176),
                    possibly presuming that the ancient city
                    name was Barden, as there is no other
                    place‑name here of "Barden."
                  Bretten‑ham, with Briton coins.1

   Lincolns :     Barton on Humber (2, 338), and to its south
                    is Glan‑ford, suggestive of Part‑olon and
                    Cadwallon's title of "Gioln."
                  Barton, near Lincoln.
                  Berewita, near Spalding Croyland (2, 345).

   Yorks :        Barton, four towns of this name (3, 248; 279; 281; 415.)
                  Brad‑ford, seat of cloth manufacture.
                  Brid‑ling‑ton, with several early "British
                  Broughton, in Craven, with early remains 3, 283).2

   Northumberland :  Birt‑ley, with numerous "British villages."3
   Nottingham :   Burton (2, 400).
   Leicester :    Bredon, with old priory (2, 306).
                  Breedon Hill, with prehistoric earthworks.4

   Stafford :     Barton (2, 504).
                  Berth, near Whitmore, with prehistoric earth
                  Burton‑on‑Trent (2, 497).

   Northampton :  Barton Seagrave (2, 281).
                  Burton (2, 268).

The Severn Valley was another early avenue of Briton civilization, and its Welsh bank remained largely free: from Roman domination and influence, with its ancient capital of the later Briton kings, down to the Cymric Arthur, at Caerleon or Isca on the Usk; and on the west the peninsula

1 E.C.B., 120.
2 W.P.E., 251.
3 Ib., 241.
4 Ib., 238.
5 Ib., 247.


of Gower, the ancient Guhir1, associated with the King Arthur legend, wherein that name "Guhir" is obviously the transplanted "Kur" or "Syria," the homeland of the Syrio-Phoenicians, as we have seen. On the south is Somerset or "The Seat of the Somers, Sumers or Cymyrs"; and the western promontory at the Severn mouth is "Hercules Point," the "Herakles Akron" of Ptolemy (or modern "Hart-land Point"), indicating the former presence of the Hercules-worshipping Phoenician navigating colonists there. The Upper Severn rises in Mont-Gomery, which name is now seen to mean "The Mount of the Cymry, Somers, or "Gomors" - the latter being also the Hebrew form of the ethnic name "Sumer." In the Severn Valley we have the following series of Barat names:-

   Somerset :   Parret River at Somer-ton, which was 
                  "anciently the chief town of the whole country
                  which takes its name from it,"2 with
                  "Avalon Isle," associated with the King
                  Arthur legends.
                Puriton, at old mouth of Parret River.
                Barton, near Axbridge and Cheddar.
                Bruton or Briweton, with old abbey (1, 99)
                     and prehistoric earthworks.3
                Burton Pynsent, near Taunton, seat of Chatham
                    family (1, 96), with prehistoric carthworks4.
                Bratton, near Wincanton and east of Cad
                     bury, with ancient "camps" (1, 120, 149).
                Priddy, on Mendip Hills, with numerous
                    prehistoric barrows.5
                Burthe, with Bronze Age rernains.6
   Gloster :    Brito ("Bristol"). The ancient name for
                Bristol was "Caer Brito,"7 and altered to
                "Brightston" by the Saxons.
                Bred‑on Hill, with Kenaer-ton "Camp" and
                  Roman remains.8
                Bourton‑on‑the‑Water, with prehistoric
                  barrows,9 and on Roman road.
                Bird‑lip and "camps," with Stone Age
                  remains and earthworks at Bird‑lip,
                  Cooper's and Crickley Hills.10

1 "Guhir" of Nennius, also spelt "Guyr." See C.B.G., 3, 123.
2 C.B., 1, 79.
3 W.P.E., 245.
4 Ib., 245.
5 Ib., 167.
6 Ib., 106.
7 Nennius, cited by C.B., 1, 86.
8 W.P.E., 234.
9 Ib., 160 and 387.
10 Ib., 233.


   Worcester :    Bart‑on, near Upton on Severn.
                  Pirt‑on, to N.W. of above.
                  Bred‑on, on Severn at mouth of Avon, with
                    old monastery mentioned by Bede.1
                  Brad‑on Hills, on Avon, with Kemmer‑ton
                    and Combey‑ton, adjoining.
                  Bredi‑cott at Worcester.

   Hereford :     Broad‑ward, with Bronze Age remains.2

   Monmouth :     Brydhin River at Caerleon, or Isca, on the
                    Usk (3, 115).

   Glamorgan :    Briton Ferry, at mouth of Neath, leading to
                    Gower (3, 132).
                  Poyteynon, in Gower.
   Montgomery :   Brythm Hills, on Upper Severn, N.E. of
                     Montgomery town.
In Western Wales, in the coastal counties and Anglesea, are the following: -
   Cardigan :     Borth, on Dover estuary (3, 150), near cairn
                    of Taliesin, the great Welsh bard (sixth
                    century, A.D.).

   Carnarvon :    Bard‑sey Point and Bard‑sey, with
                    traditional abbot, St. Cad‑van, of Cad‑van's
                    Stone (3, 172).
                  Brith Rivil, on shore, connected with
   Anglesea :     Bwrdd Arthur, a high hill with ruins of
                    ancient buildings, near Trevaur, with crom-
                    lechs (3, 201).

In Cumbria and Isle of Man are the following:‑

   Mona :         Braddon, with its Runic‑inscribed monuments.
   Cheshire :     Barton (3, 53).
   Lancashire :   Barton, near Eccles.
                  Burton, near coast, north of Lancaster,
                    presumably on the coast of Morecambe
                    Bay, an old road to lead mines, about
                    1100 B.C.
                  Forton, north of Garstang, on Wyre.
                  Bard‑sey, at north entrance to Morecambe
                    Bay, with Stone Circle.3

1 B.H.A., 2, 471; 488.
2 W.P.E., 105.
3 W.P.E., 201.


   Westmorland : Barton in Ambleside, with prehistoric
                 Barton‑on‑Street, on old Roman road,
                   near Haringham (3, 329).
                 Burton (3, 412).
                 Burton in Kendal, with ancient remains
                   (3, 405).
                 Brathay River with Broughton, near Amble
                   side, with Bronze Age remains.1

   Cumberland :  Broughton, on Derwent, near Camer‑ton.

The Clyde Valley was another great artery through which Early Briton Civilization flowed into the remoter limbs of North Britain, with Dun-Barton or "Fort of the Bartons or Britons"2 as a distributing centre. At the time of Ptolemy the upper estuary of the Clyde was occupied by the "Gad-enoi," that is, "The people of the Gad or Phoenicians"; and we shall see later the numerous "Gad" and "Catti" names in this area.

Below Dun-Barton are the "Cumbrae Isles" with the beautiful island of Arran or "Land of the Arya or Aryans," with its highest mountain peak Goat-Fell or "Mount of the Goats or Goths" and stone-circles. Arran was one of the seven sacred burial places of the Irish-Scots, as recorded in the Ogam Chronicle of Kerry; and it was called by the Norsemen, in the ninth century A.D., "Kumrey-ar" or "(Abode) of the Cumbers, i.e., Sumers."3

Above Dun-Barton we have Part-ick, or "The Wick (or town) of the Parts," at the highest navigable point of the river (until deepened a few miles further to Glasgow in modern times) at the mouth of the Kelvin rivulet; thence along the latter valley across the narrow waist of Scotland to the Forth on the East Coast girdled by the "Picts' Wall," or "Grim's Dyke," an earthen rampart, presumably originally erected by the Britons as a defence against the Northern Picts and Huns, and afterwards utilized and strengthened by Antoninus, after whom it is now generally

1 W.P.E., 106.
2 The aboriginal Celtic name for "Dun-Barton" was and is "Al-Clutha" or "Rock of the Clyde" - "Clutha" being "Clyde," the "Clothi" of the Romans.
3 "Kumra" is Eddic for Cumber-land.


called by modern writers. This strategical and natural line is followed also by the modern engineers of the inter-ocean canal and railways. Midway at the watershed between the Kelvin and Forth Valleys stands "Cumber-nauld" or "Cum'er-naud" or "Hold of the Cumbers or Cum'ers" or Sumers, near a chief Roman fort on the Wall on the south, with its Camelot of the Arthur legend locally represented at Camelon on the Carron tributary of the Forth, where were the ruins of an ancient building known as "Arthur's O'on,"1 which place is believed by some writers2 to be the historical Camlan, the site of the final battle between the historical Cymric King Arthur and Modred wherein both perished.

The Forth frith is significantly commanded by the island of Inch Keith or "Isle of the Keiths or Ca ti," opposite which rises "Arthur's Seat" dominating Edinburgh, the "Dun Eden or Edin" of the Scots;3 and at its base flows the river Esk - the Trojan-Phoenician origin of which name we have seen - and the place-names "Pinkie" and "Penicuik" on that river, with the intervening Borth-wick on or near the Roman Watling Street, also suggest the name "Punic" or "Phoenician."

Thence, coasting northwards, we pass the Wemyss Caves with prehistoric solar cult gravings (Figs. 60, 68) and St. Andrews to Perth, the ancient Berth4 or "City of the Berths or Perths," which latter dialectic form of Barat is seen to be in series with "Part-olon"; and there is another Bertha, with Roman and ancient Briton remains, a few miles distant, at the confluence of the Almond and Tay.5 Significantly also there is a "Comrie" to the west of Perth, and the great plain at Perth and the adjoining Scone (the old seat of crowning of the Scottish kings) is named "Gowrie," and also with Stone circles in series with the Arthurian "Gower" on the Severn.

1 The ruins of "Arthur's O'on" (or Oven), so called as long ago as 1293, were demolished long ago by the Carron Iron Foundry to make a dam for their works. The site appears to be visible from Arthur's Seat.
2 S.C.P. 14, 161, and Celtic Scotland; and M.E.C., 73. This Camlan is placed in Cornwall by Geoffrey (Hist. Brit., 11, 2.)
3 S.C.P., xxii and cxlii.
4 C.B., 4, 134.
5 Ib., 4, 140.


The Don Valley, to the north of Perth, the site of Partolon's inscribed monument, contains in the neighbourhood of that monument, besides a considerable number of villages called "Catti" (see Map, p. 19) as distinguished from Pictish villages with the prefix of "Pit," also some of the Barat series, namely, "Bourtie," "Barth-ol" and "Ports-town."

In Ireland the vestiges of the early Briton place-names are not wanting. I have not yet searched specially for them, but may instance Brittas Bay in Wicklow, with the town of Red Cross; another Brittas, the ancient seat of the O'Dunns, and Bally Brittas, both in Queen's County,1 Brutain, with the adjoining Newton Breda, in Down,2 and Burton in Cork.3 And Ireland of the Irish-Scots has also its "Holy Isles," with very ancient remains, including a magnificent "prehistoric" fort of cyclopean masonry in the Hitt-ite style, in Galway Bay, and also significantly named "Aran" or "Arran," which like the name "Erin" and "Ir-land," in series with the "Airy-ana" or "Ir-an" or "Land of the Aryans" of the ancient Sun-worshipping Aryans in the Orient.

1 Ib., 4, 311 and 312.
2 Ib., 4, 425.
3 Ib., 4, 278.

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