PLATE I. Aryan Phoenician inscriptions on Newton Stone of "Part-olon, King of the Scots" about 400 B.C., calling himself "Brit-on," "Hittite," and "Phoenician." (From author's photographs). (a) Face. (b) Semi-profile. (c) Profile. Frontispiece





FIG. PAGE [at end of each entry]


A. Sun-horse of Phoenician Archangel Dasap Mikal (Michael) and his Cross, vanquishing the Dragon, inscribed in Sumerian DIAS, with his 5 "cup-marks." From Hittite sacred seal of about 2000 B.C. (After Delaporte). xv


B. Two Ancient Briton coins of 1st or 2nd cent B.C. of same scene also inscribed DIAS. (After Beale and J. Evans). xv


1. Bel, "The god of the Sun" and Father-god of the Phoenicians. From a Phoenician altar of about 4th century B.C. (After Renan). 2


2. Swastika Sun-Crosses on dress of Phoenician Sun-priestess carrying sacred Fire. (After Di Cesnola). 3


3. "Catti" Briton coin of pre-Roman Britain of about 2nd century B.C., with Sun and Cross symbols. (After B. Poste). 6


4. Early Khatti, "Catti" or Hittites in their rock-sculptures about 2000 B.C. (After Perrot and Guillaume). 7


5. Phoenician coin of Carthage inscribed "Barat." (After Duruy). 9


5A. Briton prehistoric monument to Bel at Craig Narget, Wigtonshire, with Hitto-Phoenician Sun-Crosses, etc. (After Proc. Soc. Antiquaries, Scotland). 15


5B. Prehistoric Briton monument to Bel at Logie in Don Valley, near Newton Stone, with Hitto-Phoenician inscription and Solar symbols. (After Stuart). 20


6. Aryan Phoenician inscription on Newton Stone. 29


7. Ogam Version of Newton Stone inscription as now deciphered and read. 30


8. Ogamoid inscription from Hittite hieroglyphs, on the Lion of Marash (after Wright). 36


9. Phoenician inscription on Earl Briton Coins found near Selsey. (After J. Evans). 43


10. Cilician Gothic king worshipping "Sun-god." Front bas-reliefs in temple of Antiochus I. of Commagene, 63-34 B.C. (After Cumont). 46


11. Cassi Coin of Early Britain, inscribed "Cas" with Sun-horse. (After Poste). 48


12. Cassis of Early Babylonia ploughing and sowing under the Sign of the Cross. From Kassi official seal of about 1350 B.C. (After Clay). 49


12A. "Cassi" Sun-Cross on prehistoric monument with Cup-marks at Sinniness, Wigtonshire. (After Proc. Soc. Antiquaries, Scotland). 51


13. Phoenician patronymic titles of "Parat" and "Prydi" or "Prudi" on Phoenician tombstones in Sardinia. 53







14. Coins of Phoenician "Barats" of Lycaonia of 3rd cent. A.D. disclosing their tutelary goddess "Barati" as "Britannia." (After W. M. Ramsay). 55


15. Britannia on Early Roman coins in Britain. (After Akerman). 56


16. Phoenician Coin of Barati or Britannia from Sidon. (After Hill). 57


17. Brit-annia tutelary of Phoenicians in Egypt as Bairthy, "The Mother of the Waters," Nut or "Naiad" (After Budge). 60


18. Egyptian hieroglyphs for Goddess Bairthy of Phoenician sailors. 62


19. Briton Lady of Cal-uallaun clan wife of Barates, a Syrio-Phoenician. From sculpture of about 2nd century A.D. at South Shields. 73


20. A prehistoric Matriarch of the Vans(?) of the Stone Age. From a Hittite rock-sculpture near Smyrna. (After Martin). 93


21. Van or "Biana," ancient capital of Matriarch Semiramis, and "The Children of Khaldis" on flanks of Ararat. (After Bishop). 98


21A. Sun-Eagle triumphs over Serpent of Death, from pre-Christian Cross at Mortlach, Banff. (After Stuart). 110


22. Three main racial head-types in Europe. 135


23. Hitto-Phoenician war-chariot as source of Briton war-chariots. (After Rosellini). 145


24. "Trojan" solar shrine at Brutus' birth-province (Latium) with identical Hittite symbols as in Ancient Britain. (After Chantre). 149


25. Phoenician tin port in Cornwall, Ictis or St. Michael's Mount in Bay of Penzance. (After Borlase). 165


25A. Prehistoric Catti Sun-Cross and Spiral gravings on barrow stones at Tara, capital of Ancient Scotia or Erin. (After Coffey). 187


25B. Catti coin inscribed "Ccetiyo" from Gaul. (After Poste). 215


26. Phoenician Chair of 15th cent. B.C., with solar scenes as in Early Briton monuments and coins. From tomb of "Syrian" high-priest in Egypt. (After A. Weigall). 221


27. Sumerian Sighting Marks on Observation Stone of Keswick Stone Circle. 227


28. Mode of Sighting Solstice Sunrise by Observation Stone at Keswick Circle. 230


29. Mode of Sighting Solstice Sunrise by Observation Stone at Stonehenge. 230


30. Prehistoric "Cup-markings" on monuments in British Isles. (After Simpson). 237


31. "Cup-markings" on amulet whorls from Troy. (From Schliemann). 238


32. "Cup-marks" on archaic Hitto-Sumerian seals and amulets. (From Delaporte). 239


33. Circles as diagnostic cipher .marks of Sumerian and Chaldee deities, in "Trial" scene of Adam, the son of God Ia ("Iahvh" or Jove). From Sumer seal of about 2500 B.C. (After Ward). 239


34. Circle Numerical Notation in Early Sumerian, with values. 241


35. Father-god Ia ("Iahvh" or Jove) or Indara, bestowing the Life-giving Waters. From Sumer seal of about 2450 B.C. (After Delaporte). 245


36. Dual Circles designate two-headed Resurrecting Sun. From Hitto-Sumer seals of about 2400 B.C. (After Delaporte). 247


37. Returning or Resurrecting Sun entering "Gates of Night." From Hittite seals of about 2000 B.C. (After Ward). 248


38. Returning or Resurrecting Sun in prehistoric Irish rock-gravings as Two-Cup-marks with Reversed Spirals entering Gates of Night. (Figs. after Coffey). 249






39. Pentad Circles designate Tasia, the archangel Michael. 250


40. Archangel Tasia (winged) invoked by Mother (4 Circles) for Dead (3 Circles). From Hittite seal of about 1500 B.C. (After Lajard). 250


41. Phoenician seal reading "Tas," Archangel. (After A. Di Cesnola). 251


42. Heptad Circles for Heaven. (After Delaporte) . 251


43. Muru, Mor or "Amorite" archaic tablet of about 4000 B.C. from grave of Aryan Sun-priestess in Cup-mark and Sumerian script, "Hoffman tablet." (After Barton). 257


43A. Tascio horseman and horse of the Sun, on Briton coins of 1st cent. B.C., with Cross and circle ("cup") marks. (After Poste). 261


44. Sun Symbols--Discs, Horse, Hawk, etc., on Early Briton coins. (After J. Evans). 285


44A. St. John-the-Baptist with his Sun-Cross sceptre or mace. (After Murillo). 288


44B. Ancient Briton coin with Corn Sun-Cross, Andrew's Cross, Sun-horse, etc. (After Poste). 289


45. Twin Fire-Sticks crossed in Fire-production, as used in modern India. (After Hough). 292


46. Sun Crosses, Hitto-Sumerian, Phoenician, Kassi and Trojan, plain, rayed and decorated, on seals, amulets, etc., 4000-1000 B.C. 294


47. Ancient Briton Sun Crosses derived from Hitto-Sumerian, Phoenician, Kassi and Trojan sources on prehistoric pre- Christian monuments and pre-Roman Briton coins. 295


48. "Gyron" Cross of British Heraldry is the "Guyin" Cross of the Hittites. 307


49. Identity of Catti or Hittite Solar monuments with those of Early Britain, re Cadzow pre-Christian Cross. 308


50. Swastika on Phoenician (or Philistine) coin from Gaza, disclosing origin of Scottish "Spectacle" darts. 310


51. Swastika of Resurrecting Sun transfixing the Serpent of Death on Ancient Briton monument at Meigle, Forfarshire. (After Stuart). 311


52. St. Andrew, patron saint of Goths & Scots, with his Cross. (After Kandler). 314


53. Indara's X Cross on Hitto-Sumerian, Trojan and Phoenician Seals. 316


54. "Andrew's" Cross on pre-historic monuments in Britain and Ireland and on Early Briton coins. 317


55. Indara or "Andrew" slaying the Dragon. From Hittite seal of about 2000 B.C. (After Ward). 319


56. "Andrew's" X Cross is Indara's Bolt or "Thor's Hammer" on Ancient Briton monuments. 321


57. Indara spouting water for benefit of mankind. From Hitto-Sumerian seal of about 2500 B.C. (After Ward). 324


58. Unicorn as sole supporter of old Royal Arms of Scotland, and associated with St. Andrew and his "Cross." 329


59. Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" of Indara, protected by Cross and Archangel Tas (Tashub Mikal) against Lion and Wolf of Death on Hitto-Sumer, Phoenician and Kassi seals. (After Ward, etc.). 334


60. Ancient Briton Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" of Indara, protected by Cross and Archangel Tai or Tascia (Michael) against Lions and Wolf of Death. (After Stuart, etc.). 335


60A. Ancient Briton "Tascio" coin inscribed DIAS. (After Poste). 338


61. Tascio or Tascif of Early Briton coins is Corn-Spirit Tas or "Tash-ub" of Hitto-Sumerians. (Coins after J. Evans). 339






62. Tascio or Tascif as "Tashub" the Hittite or Early Gothic Corn-Spirit. From archaic Hittite rock-sculpture at Ivriz in Taurus. (After von Luschan and Wilson). 340


63. Archangel Tas interceding with God Indara for sick man attacked by Dragon of Death. From Hittite seal of about 2500 B.C. (After Delaporte). 344


64. Archangel Tas-Mikal defending Goats (and Deer) as "Goths" with Cross and Sun emblems on Greco-Phoenician coins. (From coins in British Museum, after Hill). 346


65. Archangel Tai defending Goats as "Goths" with Cross and Sun emblems on Early Briton coins. (From coins after J. Evans and Stukeley). 347


66. Tas as "Michael" the Archangel, bearing rayed "Celtic" Cross, with Corn, Sun-Goose or Phoenix on Phoenician coins of Cilicia of 5th century B.C. (Coins in British Museum, after Hill). 349


67. Tas or Tascio or St. Michael the Archangel on Early Briton pre-Christian coins. (Coins after J. Evans). 349


68. Phoenix Sun-Bird of Tas or Tascio with Crosses and Sun-discs from Early Britain cave-gravings and coins. (After Simpson, Stuart and J. Evans). 350


69. "Tascio" in Egypt as Resef. (After Renan). 353


70. Tascia, Dias or Tax as "Daxa," the Indian Vedic Creator-god. (After Wilkins). 353


71. Logie Stone Ogam inscription as now deciphered, disclosing invocation to Bil and his Archangel "Tachab" or "Tashub." 356


72. "Bird-Men" on Briton monuments, at Inchbrayock and Kirrie-muir Forfar. (After Stuart). 362


73. Early Bronze Age Briton button-amulet Cross. From barrow-grave at Rudstone, Yorks. (After Greenwell). 378


74. Ancient Briton "Catti" coin of 2nd cent. B.C., with Sun Crosses, Sun-horse, etc., and legend INARA (Hitto-Phoenician Father-god Indara or "Andrew"). (After Evans). 384


75. Tascio (Hercules) coin of Ricon Briton ruling clan. (After Poste). 385


76. Archaic Hittite Sun Horse with Sun's Disc and (?) Wings. From Seal at Caesarea in Cappadocia (After Chantre). 410


77. Pendant Phoenician Sun-Cross held in adoration. From Hittite seal of about 1000 B.C. (After Lajard). 420






Sketch-Map of Site of Newton Stone and its Neighbourhood in Don Valley. 19


Megalith Distribution in England. (After W. J. Perry). 217


Survey-plan of Keswick Stone-Circle, showing orientation of Observation-stone bearing Sumerian sign-marks. (After Dr. W. D. Anderson). 229


Map of Phoenician Empire in Western Asia, Mediterranean, and N.W. Europe, showing "Khatti" (or Hitt-ite), "Kassi" and "Barat" and "Phoenice" place-names in Phoenician colonies. At end