Chapter XVIII


Disclosing Decipherment and Translations by Identical Cup marks on Hitto-Sumerian Seals and Trojan Amulets with explanatory Sumerian Script; and Hitto-Sumerian origin of god-names "Jahveh" or "Jove," Indra, "Indri"-Thor of the Goths, St. "Andrew," Earth-goddess "Maia" or May, "Three Fates" & English names of Numerals

"Time, which antiquates antiquities,
and hath an art to make dust of all things,
hath yet spared these minor
monuments."-Sir THOMAS BROWNE.

BEFORE proceeding to examine the mass of new evidence for the former widespread prevalence of "Sun-worship" amongst the Ancient Catti Barats or Britons who erected the prehistoric Stone Circles in Britain, and amongst their descendants down to the Christian period, it is desirable here to see what light, if any, our newly-found Hitto-Sumerian origin of the Britons may throw upon the pre- historic "Cup-markings" which are sometimes found carved upon stones in these circles, in funereal barrows, upon some standing stones, dolmens and stone-cist coffins, and on rocks near Ancient Briton settlements, over a great part of the British Isles (see Fig. 30), and in Scandinavia and other parts of Europe and the Levant, associated with megalith culture, and whose origin, carvers and meaning of the Cup-markings have now been completely forgotten.



These Cup-markings have long been the subject of many varied surmises, admittedly or patently improbable;1 and especially so the latest theory that they are merely "decorations."2

FIG. 30.-Prehistoric "Cup-markings" on Monuments in British Isles.

a. Stone in chambered barrow at Clava, Inverness-shire. S.A.S., Pl. 10, 4.

b. Another stone in same. S.A.S., Pl. 10, 3.

c. Stone in underground "house" at Ruthven, Forfarshire. S.A.S., Pl. 25, 3.

d. Standing stone at Ballymenach, Argyle-shire. S.A.S., Pl. 18, 2.

e. Another stone at same. S.A.S., Pl. 17, 3.

f. "Caiy" stone, 11 ft. high, near "British camp" and sea, Coniston, near Edinburgh. S.A.S., Pl. 17, 1.

g. Jedburgh stone. S.A.S., Pl. 16, 1.

h. Laws, Forfarshire. S.A.S., Pl. 12, 5.

As I observed that many of the ancient Briton pre-Roman coins also were studded with circles, single and concentric, in groups or clusters (see Figs. in next Chapter), which generally resembled the prehistoric "cup-markings"; and that some of the ancient Greco-Phoenician coins of Cilicia and Syrio-Phoenicia contained analogous groups of circles associated with the same divinities as in the Briton coins, and that many of the "whorls" of terra-cotta dug up from the ruins of Ancient Troy by Schliemann, and which I had found were amulets, also contained numerous depressed cup-marks like the British, in definite groups and associated with the solar Swastika or Sun Crosses, and containing Sumerian writing hitherto unobserved and explanatory of the "cups" and connecting the British cup-markings with the Trojans and so confirming the British Chronicle tradition, I therefore

1 Review of theories in S.A.S., 92, etc.
2 Windle, W.P.E., 123- 4.


turned to the sacred seals of the Hitto-Sumerians, to find if they might supply a clue to the origin and meaning of the Trojan and British "Cup-marks."

FIG. 31.-"Cup-markings" on Amulet Whorls from Troy, with explanatory Sumerian writing.
(From Schliemann.)
Note definite groups of "cups" and dots with Crosses and Swastikas and in a True Cross springing from Rayed Sun. The large central hole is for string attachment of amulet. Interpretation on p. 252.

I then found that the ancient sacred seals and amulets of the Hitto-Sumerians, from the fourth millennium B.C. onwards, figured similar groups of circles, some of them "ringed," and associated with Sun and Swastika (see Fig. 32). And from their repeated recurrence attached to the figures of a particular god or gods, it seemed clear that they were used to designate that particular god or gods (see Fig. 33). Further examination confirmed this. It thus became evident that these circles, arranged singly and in groups of specific numbers, formed a recognized method

1 a. Terra-cotta amulet. S.I., No. 1954. Note True Cross springing from Sun.
b. Panel of a globe amulet, No. 1993. Note reversed Swastika for resurrecting or returning Sun.
c. Another panel of same.
d. Another panel of same.
e. No. 1988. f. No. 1999. Panel of a, globe amulet.
g. Terra-cotta seal No. 493.
h. Amulet in 1929.
i. Amulet 1953.
j. 1984.
k. 510.


of designating particular gods, or aspects of the One

FIG. 32.-"Cup-marks" on archaic Hitto-Sumerian Seals and Amulets.
(After Delaporte.)

a. D.C.O.(L.) 4 pl. 1 from Tello, with concave "cup-marks."1   b. Ib. pl. 16 from Susa, marks convex.   c. Ib. pl. 23 from Susa.   d. Ib. pl. 23.   e. Ib. pl. 32.   f. pl. 20, with concave marks. All from Susa.   g. Ib. pl. 54.   h. Ib. pl. 57 from Gaza.    i. Ib. pl. 58, Gaza.   k. Ib. pl. 58, Gaza.

Universal God and his angels amongst the Hitto-Sumerians.

FIG. 33.-Circles as Diagnostic Cipher Marks of Sumerian and Chaldee deities in the "Trial of Adam the son of God Ia (Iahveh or Jove or Indara)."
From Sumerian Seal of about 3000 B.C., after W.S.C. 300b. For description see p. 252. Note all the personages wear horn head-dress, like the Goths and Ancient Britons. Also note long beard and clean shaven lips.

In order to understand the meaning and origin of the religious values attached by the Sumerians to the circles and their numbers, it is necessary to refer to the system of

1 Dr. Delaporte reports it is pierced by two holes, and on reverse is a buckle for attachment. This implies its use as a "button-amulet," like those found in Troy and Britain, also with similar lined Cross (see Chapter XX).


numeration invented and used by the Sumerians, which is admittedly the basis of our own modern system of numerical notation. All the more so is this necessary, as I find that many of the names of our numerals in English, and in the Aryan languages generally, are also derived from the Sumerian names for these numbers, although this fact has not hitherto been noticed. This, therefore, affords still further evidence for the Sumerian origin of the Aryans, and of the Britons and Scots and Anglo-Saxons in particular.

Simple numerals were written by the Early Sumerians by strokes, such as / for 1, // for 2, /// for 3 and so on up to 91 - a system which has survived in the Roman numerals up to IIII, and on the dials of modern clocks and watches. But when engraved on stones, these lower numeral strokes were at first formed by the easier process of drilling, by the jewelled drill worked by a bowstring fiddle, thus forming circular holes, O, the so-called "cups." The numeral One was called by the Sumerians Ana, Un or As, which is now seen to be the Sumerian origin of our English "One" (Scot Ane, Anglo-Sax. An, Old English Oon, Gothic Ein and Ains, Scand. Een, Greek Oinos, Lat. Unus, French Un); whilst As is now disclosed to be the Sumerian origin of our English "Ace" (Old English As, Greek Eis, Latin As, "unity"). And it is of great significance that this word As, which the Sumerians also used for "God" as "Unity," is the usual title As or Asa, for the Father-god, in the Gothic epics, the Eddas, which, as we have seen, are now believed to have been largely composed in Ancient Britain.

Similarly, the numeral "Two" was called by Sumerians Tab or Dab, which is now disclosed as the Sumerian origin of our English word "Two" (Scot and Anglo-Sax. Twa, Gothic Tva or Tvei, Scand. Tva, Tu, Greek and Latin Duo, Sanskrit Dva- B and V or W being often interchangeable dialectically, as we have seen. The Sumerian reading for "Three" is uncertain; but the numeral "Four" reads Gar2 and Ga-dur,3 which thus equate with the Indo-

1 Nine was also written by the Sumerians as "ten minus one," as it still survived in the Roman.
2 Br., 11943.
3 Br., 10015, and see below.


Persian Car, Latin Quatuor, Fr. Qatre, Sanskrit Catur, Gaelic Ceithov and our English Quart and Quarter). Six is As and in Akkad Sissu; Seven is Sissina (or "Six" plus "One") and Sibi in Akkad; and Eight is Ussu, which equates with the Breton Eich, Eiz1 and fairly with the Sanskrit Asta and Scot and Gaelic Acht. And the Sumerian names of other numerals may also prove, on reexamination, to be more or less identical with the Aryan.

The occult values attached to certain numbers by the Sumerians, through ideas associated with particular numbers, was the origin of the mystical use of numbers in the ancient religions of the East and Greece referred to by Herodotus and other writers, as current amongst the adepts in the mysteries of the Magians, Pythagoras, Eleusis, and later amongst the Gnostics, and surviving in some measure in religion to the present day. Thus "One" as "Unity" and "First," was secondarily defined by the Sumerians as "complete" and "perfect," and thus also represented "God, heaven and earth." When formed by a circle or "cup-mark," it especially represented the Sun and Sun-god, who are also represented by a circle with a central dot in Egyptian hieroglyphs. Different sizes of circles, and concentric circles, and semicircles or curved wedges had different numerical and mystical values attached to them as shown in the accompanying Figure2; and all of these forms and groups of

FIG. 34.-Circle Numerical Notation in Early Sumerian with values.

1 G.D.B., 197.
2 This is based on researches of Thureau-Dangin. T.R.C., pp. 78 etc.
Br., 8631, etc.; as Earth, Br., 8689; as "That One," Br., 8765.
4 = 60 X 60.
5 Cp. B.B.W., p. 192, 364. Sara in Sanskrit also = a pool and sea, and well.


circles are found in the prehistoric "cup-marks" in the British Isles.

This early method of numerical notation by circles was especially used by the Sumerians in their religion to designate God, and different aspects of the godhead and Heaven, Earth and Death, and in the later polytheistic phase to distinguish a few different divinities, as we have seen in the sacred seal in Fig. 33. Thus, whilst the single circle, or numeral for one, was, like the sign of the rayed Sun itself, used to designate "God" (as First Cause), the Sun and Sun-god and latterly gods in general and Heaven, the higher numbers in definite groups of small circles designated different members of the godhead, &c., as recorded in the bilingual Sumero-Akkadian glossaries.

With the aid of these circle marks we are able to identify the Hitto-Sumerian god-names on the seals and tablets with the names of the leading Aryan gods of classic Greece and Rome, of the Indian Vedas, of the Gothic Eddas, and of the Ancient Britons, as inscribed on their pre-Roman coins and monuments, and not infrequently accompanied in the latter by the same groups of circle marks. In this table, for convenience of printing, an ordinary O type is used to represent the perfect circle of the originals.

   O = 1 or 10 (A, Ana, As U, Un, etc.).
       God1 as Monad, Ana, "The One,"2 Lord, Father-god
       I-a (or Bel), or In-duru,3 Sun-god Mas or Mashtu
       ("Hor-Mazd").4 Earth, Heaven and Sun.

    OO = 2 or 20 (Tab, Tap, Dab, Man, Min,5 Nis).

or  O   Sun-god as "Companion of God," also called
   Buzur,6 Ra7 or Zal8 (= "Sol"), also Nas-atya in Hittite
        and Sanskrit. Is dual-or 2-faced-the visible Day Sun and
        Night or "returning" Sun,

1 Br., 8688.
2 Br. 8654.           3 See later.           4 See later.
5 Min was possibly used in
Britain as synonym, in view of the nursery counting out rhyme, "Eeny, Meeny, Mainy, Mo," etc.
6 Br. 9944. Buz is described as the "Gid" or Serpent Cad-uceus holder, which accounts for the 2 serpents figured on rod of Sun-god and below the Sun on some Sumerian seals and on Egyptian figures of the Sun and on rod of Mercury.
7 B.B.W., No. 337, 6, 8, 56; and Langdon, J.R.A.S., 1921, 573.
8 Br., 7777.


   and origin of Dioscorides.  Frequent on Briton monuments and
   OOO =  3 or 30 (Es, Ushu)
          Moon,  Moon-god  Sin. Also(?) Death (Bat or Mattu)2 and
          Earth (Matu), Sib3 or Batu4 or "Fate" =
          The Three Sybils or Fates.
    OOOO = 4 or 40 (Gar5 Gadur6,  Nin,
or   OO    Mother Goddess Ga-aa8(=Gaia) or Ma-a9(=Maia,
     OO    Maya or May) and numerically = "Four"
           (quarters), "Totality" and "Multitude."10
   OOO =  5 or 50 (Ia, Ninni, Tas-ia).
    OO    Archangel  messenger  Ta's-ia,ll  Ta's or Tesu(b), "man-god of
          Induru,"12 "Son of the Sun," "Son of Ia" 
          (Mero-Dach or "Mar-duk," "Illil,"13 Adar").
          Also his temple.14
   OOO =  6 or 60 (As, Akkad Sissat).
   OOO    Sea-storm god or spirit, Mer, Muru or Marutu (Akkad Ramman,15
          Adad and Sanskrit Maruta). 
   OOOO = 7 or 70 (Sissu, Imin, Akkad Siba).
    OOO   "Field of Tas"16
          Capital city. (=?Himin or "Heaven" of Goths and "7th Heaven"?).17
   OOOO = 8 or 80 (Ussa).
   OOOO   "Field of Ts'18 [8 was number of Dionysos].19
    OOOOO = 9 or 90 (Ilim).
    OOOO   "He-Goat."20 God Elim21
           (Bel, "En-Sakh" or "En-Lil" or Dara ?) 
           [9 was number of Prometheus].22

1 Is judge and chief heavenly witness seeing all things; and chief oracle and oath god.
2 Signs Br., 9971, read Ma-tu preferably to Ba-tu, thus equating with Akkad Matu, Mutu, "die, death," and Aryan Pali Mato, Indo-Persian Mat, "Death." This is confirmed by its
Akkad synonym Mutitu = "Condition of Death" (cp. M.D., 619); and a defaced Sumerian word for "Death" in glossary is spelt Ma. . (P.S.L., 110), presumably "Matu."
Br. 8194; M.D., 1065.
4 Br., 9993 and 8197.
Br., 10014 and 11943.
6 Br., 10015.
7 Ibid, 10015, wrongly read "Ea," cp.
Br., 5414 and 11319.
8 Ib., 10015 and 5412.
9 Ib., 5414.
10 Br., 10024.
Br., 10038, for signs, and Br., 11253, etc., for values.
12 Br., 10038.
13 Br., 10037.
14 T.C.R., 517.
15 Br., 12198.
16 Br., 10050.
17 On Im = "Heaven," cp.
Br., 2241. Pleiades are not in the list.
18 Br., 10053.
19 W. Westcott, Numbers and Occult Power, 83.
20 Br., 8884. M.D., 271; also "Gazelle" and "Chamois" (S.H.L., 283 and 533).
21 Br., 8883.
22 Westcott, 85.


O = 3600 (Sar, Di)
    "Perfect, complete, Goodness." God Ana ("The
     One").1 Sun-god Sur (Asur or Bil).2 
     Highest Judge (Di)3 Heaven, Paradise.4
O [O with inner circle] = 36,000 (Saru, Infinity).
OO = (Ia) God, Ia or Induru (Indara.)5

We thus find that the Father-god. of the Sumerians (and of the Hitto-Phoenicians), whose earliest-known name, as recorded on the Udug trophy Bowl of the fourth millennium B.C., is "Zagg" (or Za-ga-ga, which, with the soft g gives us the original of "Zeus," the Dyaus and Sakka of the Vedas and Pali, and the "Father Sig" or Ygg of the Gothic Eddas) is recorded by the single-circle sign as having the equivalent of Ia or Bel, thus giving us the Aryan original of "Iah" (or "Jehovah") of the Hebrews, and the "Father Ju (or Ju-piter)" or Jove of the Romans.

This title of Ia (or "Jove") for the Father-god (Bel), as represented by the single circle, is defined as meaning "God of the House of the Waters," which is seen to disclose the Sumerian source of the conception of Jove as "Jupiter Pluvius" of the Romans. This special aspect and function of the Father-god was obviously conditioned by the popular need of the Early Aryans in their settled agricultural life for timely rain and irrigation, with water for their flocks and herds, as well as their seafaring life. We therefore find him often represented in the sacred seals of the Sumerians and Hittites, from about 4000 B.C. onwards, as holding the vase or vases of "Life-giving Waters," which are seen issuing from his vase, and which he as "The Living God" bestows upon his votaries (see Fig. 35).6

This beautiful conception of the bountiful Father-god by our Early Aryan ancestors, and authors of the cup-mark inscriptions, at so very remote a period, which is preserved in their sacred seals as well as in the contemporary inscribed tablets, renders it desirable here to draw attention to the vast treasure-house of authentic early history of our ancestors which is conserved in these sacred seals of the Sumerians,

1 Br. 8213.
2 Br., 8209 and 8212 and on Bil, see later.
3 Br., 8201.
4 Br., 8219.

5 Br. 8272.
6 See f.n. 2, p. 246.


Hittites, Phoenicians, and Kassi and other Babylonians, in order to understand aright the cup-mark inscriptions and symbols on the "prehistoric" Briton monuments and Briton coins and the deity who is therein invoked. Many thousands of the actual original seals of the Early Aryan kings, high-priests, nobles and officials, and many of them inscribed, have fortunately been preserved to us down through the ages. They form a vast picture-gallery of authentic facts, vividly portraying, not only the religious beliefs and ideals of our Aryan ancestors, and their conception of God and the Future

FIG. 35.-Father-god Ia (Iahvh or "Jove") or Indara bestowing the "Life-giving Waters."
From Sumerian seal of King Gudea, about 2450 B.C.
(After Delaporte.1 Enlarged 1 1/2 diameters.)

Note the horned Gothic head-dress and costumes of that period, with long beard and clean-shaven lips. The Sun, as angel, with his double-headed Serpent Caduceus, introduces the votaries. The flower-bud on top of vase is the Sumerian word-sign for "Life."

Life, but also preserve the contemporary portraits of early Aryan kings, queens, priests and people, the details of their dress and the high aesthetic feeling and civilization of those early periods. And the very highly naturalistic art and technique displayed in the drawing is all the more remarkable when it is remembered that the drawing is on such a minute scale and delicately engraved on hard jewel stones.

These seals and their contemporary tablet-records disclose the important fact that the Aryan Father-god (Bel) was already imagined in human form, and on the model of a

1 D.C.O.(L).I. By permission of Librairie Hachette; and cp. W.S.C., 368a and 650.


beneficent earthly king so early as about 4000 B.C. He is of fine Aryan type (see Figs. 33, 35, etc.), with Gothic horned chaplet, richly robed, and usually enthroned beside the Sun. This was evidently also the conception of the Universal God by our Aryan ancestors, even when the more idealistic of them refrained from making his graven image, and figured him merely by the simple circle of "Unity" and "Perfection," as engraved on many Hitto-Sumerian seals and on the cup-mark inscriptions in prehistoric Britain.

Although calling him "I-a" (or Jove), that same word-sign was also read by the Sumerians as In-duru, the "Indara" of the Hittites, the Indra of the Vedas, the "Indri-the-divine" title of Thor in the Gothic Eddas. And this name of Indara, we shall find later, is the source of the name and of the supernatural miraculous part of the Church legend of St. Andrew, the patron saint of the later Goths, Scyths and Scots.

The dual circles or "cups" for the Sun, connote the ancient idea that the Sun apparently moved round the earth and returned East for sunrise under the earth or ocean somehow so as to form two phases, as the "Day" Sun and the "Night" (or submarine "returning") Sun- a notion also believed by the writers of the Hebrew Old Testament.

These dual circles for the Sun, denoting his day and night phases, seen in Fig. 33, are again seen in the seal of about 2400 B.C. in Fig. 36, which represents the owner of the votive seal being introduced by the archangel Tasia1 to the Resurrecting Sun-god (two-headed as before) emerging on the East (or left hand) from the waters of the Deep (and behind him the swimming "Fish-god" of the Deep), wherein the Sun-god's name is written Ra or Zal, inscribed immediately underneath the two circles.2 These names for him now disclose the Sumerian source of the Egyptian Ra

1 See later.
2 The other name in panel to left, immediately under the head of the "Fish-god" of the Deep, reads A-a, and is defined as "God of the Water Vase of the Uku (? Achaia) people" (Br. 10692), and appears to represent the Sun-god's father Ia, the Creator, resurrecting from the Deep, or his "House of the Waters"-the Spirit of God moving upon the face of the Waters. "Indra loves the waters" (R.V. 10. 111. 10). "Indra lets loose the Waters for the benefit of mankind." (R.V. 1. 57. 6 etc., 4. 19. 8 etc.).


and Sanskrit Ra-vi (or "Rover") name for that luminary and its presiding "deity." Whilst Zal discloses the Sumerian source of the Gothic, Latin and Old English "Sol."

FIG. 36.-Two-headed Resurrecting Sun-god designated by Two Circles.
From Hitto-Sumer seal of about 2400 B.C.
(After Delaporte.1 Enlarged 2 diameters.)

This dual please of the Sun's apparent progress westwards and back again eastwards was familiar to the Ancient Britons and Scots, as seen in the numerous prehistoric rock and other sculptures, and in Early Briton coins, where the Night or "returning" Sun is figured as a second disc, joined by bars to the Day Sun (as the so-called "Spectacles" of Scottish archeologists, Figs. in next chapter), or as a double Spiral, with the Night Sun figured as a Spiral in the reversed or "returning" direction (see Figs. 38 &c.). It is also similarly figured in Hittite seals and on Phoenician sacred vases from the Levant, Crete and the AEgean, both as the conjoined double disc (see Fig. 37 &c.), and as the double Spiral with the second reversed or "returning"; and this latter is sometimes shown in both the Hittite and Ancient Briton and Scot representations, as entering the Gates of Night (see Figs. 37 and 38), wherein the gates have the same latticed pattern, and it is also to be noted that, in these Irish Scot Prehistoric sculptures, the Sun is represented by two cup-marks, as in the Hitto-Sumerian. This again evidences

1 D.C.O.(L.) No. 251, pl. 76.


the Hittite origin of the Britons and Scots, and their common symbolism.

FIG. 37.-"Returning" or "Resurrecting" Sun entering the Gates of Night on Hittite seals.
(After Ward.)
Note in top Seal the Night Sun as Reversed Spiral, and the Winged Sun with its "Celtic" Cross, above a pillar of 7 fruits (= ? 7 days of week or 7 circles of Heaven).

The triad of circles representing both 3 and 30, designates the Moon, presumably from its three phases of waxing, waning and dark, and also its lunar month of 30 days; and they also appear to be defined as "Death" (Bat, i.e., "Fate.") And the triad means "Fate," named Sib (literally "the speaker" or sooth-sayer),2 thus disclosing the Sumerian origin of our word "Sibyl" and of "The Three Fates" and the "Three Witches" in Macbeth - a vestige of the matriarchist Cult.3 And the "Seer of the Fates" is called Bat, thus showing the Sumerian source of our English words "Fate" and "Fat-al." It also means "Earth." As "Death," see Fig. 40.

The four-fold circles designate "Totality" (from the four quarters ?), also the Mother Goddess, "Ma-a," thus disclosing the Sumerian source of the Earth Mother's name

1 W.S.C., 863, 1100.
2 Another definition of Sib or Zib is "One who cuts or measures off Fate" (B.B.W., 191), which thus literally equates with the functions of the Three Fate Sisters of the classic Greeks, and discloses their Sumerian origin.
3 Hecate, the queen of Hell, was 3-faced.


as Maia of the Greeks, Mahi and Maya of the Vedas and Indian epics, and the "goddess Queen May" of the Britons, and the source of our English "Ma" for "Mother," whilst she was also called "Ma-dur," now disclosed as the Sumerian source of our English "Mother." Her name also reads "Ga-a," the Sumerian source of her alternative Greek title of "Gaia."

FIG. 38.-"Returning" or "Resurrecting" Sun, in prehistoric Irish Scot rock graving two cup-marks; as with Reversed Spiral entering the Gates of Night.
(After Coffey.)
Note the dual cup-marks in both and that it is the Returning Spiral on extreme right (or West) which enters the latticed Gates in a, while in b, the 7 wedges in the opening in the Gates = Heaven, the direction of Resurrecting Sun.
Compare with Briton Coins in Fig. 44, showing Sun-Horse leaping over the Gates of Night.

The pentad group of circles designated the archangel of God, Tas-ia, Tasup of the Hittites and Da up Mikal of the later Phoenicians (who, we shall find, is the Archangel Michael of the Gentiles). His name Tasia, we shall find also, occurs freely in the Aryan titles of archangels in the Gothic Eddas (Thiazi), in the Vedas (Daxa, etc.), on Greco-Phoenician coins (as Tkz, Dzs, etc.), feminized by the later polytheistic Greeks into Tyche, and on the coins and monuments of the Ancient Britons (as Tasc, Tascio, etc.), and also usually associated in the Briton coins with the pentad group of circle marks, as we shall see later on.

He is represented sometimes by the pentad of circles (see Fig. 39), but usually in human form (as we shall see), and sometimes winged (see Fig. 40, etc., and numerous specimens

1 C.N.G., Fig. 24, from tumulus at Tara.


on Phoenician Coins, and on Early Briton monuments and coins, figured in next chapters).

FIG. 39.-Pentad Circles designate "Tasia" (Archangel) on Seal of 3rd millennium B.C.
(After Delaporte1)
See description later. Note Cross above vase, horned head-dress, and Goat and Bull behind god.

FIG. 40.-Archangel Tasia (winged) involved by Mother (4 circles) for Dead (3 circles).
From Hittite seal amulet of about 2000 B.C. (alter Lajard.)2
Note dead man (? husband) carries Cross above a handled Cross, and tied to wrist an amulet (picturing this seal?). The Warrior-Angel has 8-rayed Sun and endless chain of Sun's revolutions at his side.

That his name was spelt "Tas" by the Phoenicians and Sumerians is evident, amongst other proofs cited later, by the Early Phoenician seal here figured (Fig. 41). This spells his name "Ta-as," in which the Sumerian word-sign of the right hand = Ta, and the six circles have their ordinary Sumerian phonetic value of As. He is here accompanied

1 D.C.O.(L.), pl. 125, 1.
2 Lajard, Culte de Mithra, 354, and W.S.C., 873.


as is very usual, by the Sun-bird (Phoenix), Sun-fish, and Goat (which latter we shall find is a rebus for "Goth") his votaries.

FIG. 41.-Phoenician Seal reading "Tas" (Archangel).
From grave in
Cyprus of about 3rd millennium BC.
(After A. Cesnola.)

The seven-circle or heptad group designated, as we have seen, "Heaven" (Imin), and occurs frequently in the Sumerian and Hitto-Phoenician seals and amulets (see Fig. 42), as well as in the cup-marked inscriptions in Britain.

FIG. 42.-Heptad Circles for "Heaven" (Imin) on Babylonian amulet.
(After Delaporte.)
Note the 8-rayed Sun is swimming eastwards with the Sun-fish (of 7 fins)3 to Heaven (7 circles) above.

The nonad circle group designates the title of the Fathergod Bil or Indara as the "He-Goat" (Iilim), the totem or mascot of the Khatti or Getae Goths-the sacred Goat of the Cymri. And the He-Goat is a frequent associate of Thor or Indri-the-divine in the Gothic Eddas.

1 Cyprus, pl. 33, 24, and W.S.C., 1189.
2 D.C.O. (L), pl. 91, 1, No. 617, on a sapphire.
3 Cp. S.H.L. 482.


It will also be seen, in scanning the circle key-list in the table, that the first or single circle, or cup-mark, title for God, Ia or Jove, or "The One God," has the value A (i.e., the Greek Alpha): whilst the last title for Him is the large double O (i.e., the Greek O-mega-a name now seen to be also derived from the Sumerian Makh, "Great," and surviving in the Scottish "Muckle" and our English "Much" and "Magnitude," etc.). It thus appears that the Early Sumerians and our own "pagan" Ancient Briton ancestors called the Father-God Ia or Jove by the very same title as God is called in the Apocalypse, namely "Alpha and O-mega, the First and the Last." Thus, while finding the essentially Gentile origin of that title, we also gain its original inner meaning.

Having thus recovered the keys to the religious and occult values of the circles or "cup-marks" in Sumerian, we are now able, through these keys, to identify for the first time with precision the respective images of God and his angels, or minor divinities, figured on the sacred seals of the Hitto-Sumerians, as in Fig. 33, p. 239. In that seal, of which ten other specimens of the same scene are figured on other seals by Ward,1 it will be noticed that all of the personages wear the horned head-dress, like the Goths and Ancient Britons. The Father-God in human form is seated on a throne under the 8-rayed Sun, below which is a crescent;2 and facing him below is the hieroglyph of a head, which in Sumerian is the word-sign for his title of "Creator."3 Next to him, as "Witness," stands the official designated by two circles, the Sun-god (see key-list)-the "all-seeing" Day and Night Sun. He is two-faced, facing both ways, Janus-like (as in Hittite and in some Briton monuments and coins) and bears the Caduceus rod (called Gid or "Serpent rod" in Sumerian, thus disclosing the Sumerian origin of the name "Caduceus") which is topped by the double Sun-circle with two subject Serpents of Death and Darkness attached-disclosing the Sumerian origin of the two Serpents attached to the Sun's

1 W.S.C., 291-300.
2 The crescent is absent in No. 295.
3 Br., 9112-4. That he is Ia or Indara is evidenced by his being figured in many seals of this scene with the spouting waters, as in Fig. 35.


disc in Egyptian. The prisoner as a "Bird-man"-by his lower parts of the tail and feet of a chicken, and the young puppy which he holds-is designated by these Sumerian hieroglyphs as "The Son Adamu (or Adam),"1 who gives his name to this famous Chaldean epic scene. His accuser, marked by 3 circles, is the Moon-god of Darkness and Death (see key-list); and the outer official is marked by a circle with a dot to its left top, which is the Sumerian word-sign for "A Spirit of Heaven."2

Our key-list to this Circle script of the Sumerians thus discloses that the scene engraved on this sacred Sumerian seal is the famous trial scene in the Chaldean epic of "How Adam broke the Wing of the Stormy South Wind"-an epic of which several copies have been unearthed in Babylonia in cuneiform tablets.3 This epic relates that "Adam, the Son of God Ia" was overturned with his boat in the sea by the stormy South Wind, and that he retaliated by "breaking the wing" of the stormy South Wind, and was arraigned before his Father-God for trial for this audacity. It is, I find, a poetic version of the epoch-making invention of sails for sea-craft by the early Hittite historical king who is called in the still extant cuneiform documents of the third millennium B.C. "Adam(u) the Son of God," and a version of the same story is preserved in our Gothic Eddas.

This key-list will now, moreover, be found to apply equally well to the many other Hitto-Babylonian seals4 containing diagnostic circle-marks for divinities, as well as those in which the circles represent the divinities without figured representations. It also explains for the first time the cup-markings on the numerous "whorls" unearthed at Troy, the old capital of the Hittites, and now discovered to be amulets; and it explains the corresponding circles on the ancient Briton coins (as figured later), and the cup-markings of prehistoric Britain.

The Trojan cup-marks on the amulets (see Fig. 31), now

1 Br., 9075.
2 Ner,
Akkad "Arau-Naki," Br., 10149.
3 H. Winckler, Die Thon-tafeln v. El Amarna, 166, a and b, and E. T. Harper, Beit.z. Assry., 2,418 f.; and partly translated with text in L. King, First Steps in Assyrian, 215, etc.
4 Figured in W.S.C.


deciphered by means of the hitherto unnoticed Sumerian writing of about 3000 B.C. associated with them1 confirm and establish the Sumerian origin of these cup-markings, and extend our knowledge of their meaning and use. They are found in Troy solely with the Sun-cult, and associated with the same solar symbols and Crosses as are the circles on the coins and monuments of the Ancient Britons (see Figs. later)-who, by their own tradition, came from Troy.

The Sumerian writing on the Trojan amulets is in the archaic script which is found on the earliest sacred Sumerian seals and tablets of about 4000-3000 B.C. And it discovers unequivocally that these cup-marks with their associated True Crosses and Swastikas are Prayers to the One God for resurrection from the dead, "like the Sun" in its supposed resurrection from the nether regions of Death and Darkness. This now explains why in Babylonia sacred seals, in series with these, were found attached to the wrists of skeletons in tombs,2 and why the seals from Cyprus, which frequently contain these circles, single and in groups, were found almost exclusively in Phoenician tombs of the Copper-Bronze Age;3 and why, in Britain, the cup-markings are mainly found on sepulchral dolmens and on stones in funereal barrows.

The cups on these Trojan amulets (see Fig. 31, p. 238), and reduced sometimes to dots on the smaller ones, it will be noticed, are arranged sometimes single (1 = God, The One), but usually in groups of 2 (= The Sun), 3 (= Earth or Death), 5 (= Archangel Tas or "Teshub Mikal," who, we shall see, is the Archangel "Michael"); whilst 7 (Heaven) and 4 (Mother, quarters or "multitude") are also not infrequent. The Crosses figured are in the form of the True Cross in elongated form (which is seen in a in the Figure to spring from the rayed Sun) or equal-rayed of St. George's Cross shape (d and g) or as Swastikas (straight-footed c, e, f, etc., or curved-footed a, b). And it is significant that these early

1 In attempts hitherto at deciphering the writing on Trojan seals and whorls, it has been assumed that the script is a form of Cyprus writing (Sayce, S.I., 691, etc.), with more or less doubtful alphabet. But the script on the whorls here figured (a-d, j, k) is unequivocally Sumerian, as attested by the references to the signs in the Standard Sumerian of Bruenow and Thureau-Dangin.
2 W.S.C., 4.
3 W.S.C., 346.


Trojan Sumerians prayed to God and to his angel-son Tas or Tasia, to resurrect them through the "Wood" Cross of which they figure the effigy on their amulets. And we know, from the old Sumerian psalms, that the Sumerians credited the Son of the Father-god-("The Son Tas or Dach" or "Mar-Duk") with resurrecting them from the dead, as in the following line:-

"The merciful one, who loves to raise the dead to life - Mar-Duk "1 [Son Tas.]

Let us now read the contracted inscriptions on these Trojan amulets by the aid of the standard Sumerian script and its therein associated cup-mark cipher script, and hear the prayers offered by these pious Early Sumerians, and ancestors of the Britons of Troy, to God, whom they beg to resurrect them through his "Wood" Cross like the resurrecting Sun. In these contracted prayers, in which the intervening verbs and connecting phrases have to be supplied, the old idea of the moving and returning, or subterranean "resurrecting" Sun is repeated.

a. "O One and Only God (1 cup), as the returning Sun (Swastika with two feet reversed) passes through the quarters (4 cups), through the Earth or Death (3 cups), through the multitude (4 cups) of the Waters (curved line word-sign for "water"), through the multitude of the Waters (repeated word-signs with doubled dot), and resurrects above as the Risen Sun (2 cups above the Waters on East or left hand), over the Earth (3 cups), so resurrect me by this Sign of thy Cross of the Sun (Cross springing from rayed Sun)."

b. "O God (1 cup), as the returning Sun (Swastika with reversed feet) passes through the quarters (4 cups) cutting through (Sumerian Y-shaped word-sign for 'cut through') to Heaven (7 cups), so resurrect me, O Ia (Jove or Induru, by word-sign of elongated /)2 by this sign of thy Cross (Cross sign)."

c. "O perfect God (1 large cup), as the returning Sun (Swastika with reversed feet), the good and perfect Sun (2 large cups) passes from (Sumer word-sign for 'from')3 the caverns of the Earth (word-sign) 4, so resurrect me, O Ia, Lord of the Waters (word-sign)."5

1 S.H.L., 99.
2 Br., 10068.
3 Br., 28.
4 Br., 9583-4.
5 Br., 2625.


d. "By thy Wood-bar (ie., Wood Cross by its Sumerian word-sign)1 O God (large cup), through the Waters (by Sumer word-sign) of the quarters (4 small cups), through Earth or Death (3 cups), O Only God (linear sign) and thy Archangel Tas (5 cups), resurrect me to Life (Sumer word-sign for Tree of Life)." 2

e. "As the revolving Sun (Swastika Cross) passes through the Earth (3 cups), as the revolving Sun (Swastika) passes through the caverns of the Earth (word-sign), so pass me."

f. "O Archangel Tas (5 dots) of the Sun (2 dots), Lord (1 dot) of the returning Sun (reversed Swastika), as Tas (5 dots) passes through the quarters (4 dots) to Heaven (7 dots), so pass this man (word-sign,)3 O Lord (1 dot) Tas (5 dots)."

g, h and i. In similar strain.4

j. "O Infinite God (large circle with dot), the Harvester (word-sign)5 of Life (word-sign), cut through cut cut (word-signs) by thy Sun Cross (Cross and 2 dots6) the Earth or Death (3 strokes) for my resurrection."

k. "O Lord (1 dot) from (word-sign) Mother Earth (4 dots), this Seer (or Physician) man from the temple (word-sign)7 of the Sun (2 dots), pass through the Waters (word-signs), resurrect like the Sun (2 dots) by this Cross (sign of Cross)."

This discovery that these Trojan cup-marked "whorls" of the Sumerian Trojan ancestors of the Britons of about 3000 B.C. are solar amulets, inscribed with prayers or Litanies for the Dead, couched in exalted literary form, and invoking Ia or Jove for resurrection through the Sign of the Cross, whilst of far-reaching religious importance in itself, now explains why sacred seals containing such "cup-markings" were buried with the deceased in Phoenician tombs, and why the Cup-markings are chiefly found associated with tombs in prehistoric Britain.

Even still more striking and historically important is the

1 Br., 5701-2.
2 Br., 2322.
Br., 6399, and T.R.C., 289.
4 The ladder-like sign is Sumerian word-sign for Tus as "Marduk,"
Br., 10515.
5 Br., 4411, etc., and B.B.W.I., p. 43, and T.R.C., 61. It might also read "Creator" (Br., 4304, and B.B.W. 170, p. 163).
6 Two dots are shown on the side of the Cross in the side view, S.I., 1984.
7 By word-signs,
Br., 4666, 6399, 7710.


archaic Morite tablet of about 4000 B.C., in mixed Circle and linear Sumerian script, like the Trojan amulets, in Fig. 43.

FIG. 43.-Muru or "Amorite" archaic tablet of about 4000 B.C. in Circle and Linear Sumerian Script. From Smyrna.
(E. A. Hoffnnan1.)
Note the initial word-sign for "tomb" is the picture of the ancient barrow of the Indo-Aryans with its finial, called "thupa" or "tope."

It is said to have been found at the old Hittite sea-port of Smyrna on the AEgean to the south of Troy, with prehistoric Hittite rock-gravings and sculptures in its neighbourhood. It contains a beautiful and pathetic prayer for the resurrecting from the dead into paradise of a princess and Sun-priestess of the Bel-Fire cult, named Nina, and who is significantly called therein an "Ari," i.e., "Arya-n" and "Muru," i.e., "Mor" or "Amorite." It invokes the archangel Tas for the aid of the resuscitating "Underground Sun" and the "Wood"-Cross, and reads literally as follows:-

"Tomb of the good girl.
Master! Hasten unto the Underground Sun (this) vessel of (thy) assembly!
O Tus-a (Mar-Dach), Tas, all perfect Tas!
"O Caduceus (-holder) of the Sun take up O Lord, all perfect One,
The princess Nina (by) the Wood Mace (Cross) uplifted (in thy) hand!

1 See Appendix VI for details.


O Tas hasten (thine) ear!
The sick one of Bil's Fire-torch, O all perfect One, O Tas,
The Ari [Aryan] the Muru [Amorite] (take up)!

"Horse(-man) hasten, the faithful one lift up!
Cut, O Shining One, O Tas, the earth from her amidst the mound!
All perfect One Tas!
Caduceus(-holder) of the Sun, All perfect One!
In the house of Tax-the-angel (let her) abide."

And it is significant that a large proportion of the words of this Morite tablet of about 4000 B.C. are radically identical with those of modern English, thus the second and third words, "good girl," occur literally in the Sumerian as "kud gal" (for further details see Appendix VI., pp. 411-2).

Turning now to the prehistoric Cup-markings in tht British Isles, in the attempt to unlock their long-lost meaning and racial authorship by these keys to the circle-script of the Sumerians, confirmed by the associated ordinary Sumerian script on the Trojan amulets, we find that the localities in which these cup-marks occur are precisely those which we have found associated with the early invading Hitto-Sumerians, Barats or Brito-Phoenicians. They an found engraved upon some of the stones of the Stone Circles. but mainly on funereal dolmens and stones of barrow graves usually in their neighbourhood and on rocks near Ancient Briton settlements.1 The original and simpler form of the grouping of the cup-marks is best seen in the stones unearthed from funereal barrows and stone cist coffins of chieftain;. which preserve the original group numbers of the cups more clearly than the exposed standing stones and rocks, which often have had many straggling groups of cups added by later generations, which tend to confuse the recognition of the group number of the cups. And here, it is to be noted that we are dealing solely with the true "cups" and cup, with the single or double ring, and not with the many-ringed or multi-concentric circles (confined to the British Isles and

1 For list of chief site, of cup-marks in British Isles and Scandinavia, see S.A.S.,14, etc.; and W.P.E., 123-7, 195. Many others have since been found.


Sweden), known as "Rings," which are clearly later than the cups, and carved with metal tools, and which appear to be conventional forms of the solar spiral, now seen to be a symbol of the dual Sun, as the circling "Day" and returning "Night" Sun, as we shall see in the next chapter.

These Early Briton cup-markings; as seen in their simpler and original forms (see Fig. 30, p. 237), are arranged generally in the same groupings as in the Hitto-Sumerian seals and Trojan amulets. They arc found to be substantially identical with the Sumerian cup-marked solar amulets of Early Troy, and thus to be Litanies for the resurrection of the Dead by the Sun Cross, and couched in almost identical words, and thus confirming the Trojan origin for the Britons as preserved in the tradition of the Early British Chronicles.

Reading the prehistoric British cup-markings by these new keys, we find that the specimens illustrated in the Fig. pray in the same contracted Hitto-Sumerian and Trojan form, and are addressed to the same "Solar" God and his archangel Tas, as follows:-

a. "O Archangel Tas (5 cups) of the Sun Cross (the cups are arranged in form of Cross),1 save me!"

b. "O Archangel Tas of the Sun. Cross (5 cups cross-wise), as the Setting Sun (2 cups) passes through the under-world region of Death (3 cups) and resurrects as the Rising Sun (2 cups), so resurrect me!"

c. "O Thrice Infinite God la (Jove or Indra, 3 large circled cups), from Death (3 cups), from the Darkness of Death (3 cups with falling lines)2 unto the Infinite (2 circled cups) O Infinite la (large double circled cup), deliver me, O God (1 cup)!"

d. "O Infinite Ia (large circled cup), by thy Archangel Tas (5 cups) pass me through Death (3 cups), the double Death (6 cups), as the Sun (2 cups) passes to Thee, Ia (large circled cup)." [The other 3 large circled cups and their associated small cups on the lower left-hand border have evidently been added at a later period; but they repeat. the same theme. The solitary cup in

1 This cross, formed also with circles, is figured upon the body of the Archangel Tag on Phoenician coins; see Figs. later on.
2 The falling lines of these cup-marks resemble those of the Sumerian word-sign for Darkness; see D.R.C., 262; B.B.W., 389. And the
Akkad name for that sign is Erebu, disclosing source of Greek Erebos, "Darkness."


the bottom left-hand corner would be the concluding "O God!" (1 cup)1]

e. This is essentially the same as d, with 2 later additions - the large circles with associated small cups-and as end word of the lowermost "Heaven (7 cups) of the Sun (2 cups)."

f. This single line of 6 cups may be an invocation or votive offering by a sailor prince to the Sea-Storm-wind Spirit Mer or Muru for his safety or rescue at sea; or his personal name Mer or Muru, which was a personal clan name of the sea-going Hittites of "The Western Land of the Setting Sun" or the coastland of Syria-Cilicia-the "Mor-ites" or "Amor-ites" of the Hebrew Old Testament.

The belief in a future life of bliss associated with the Sun, entertained by our "pagan" Briton ancestors, in whose tombs such cup-markings are found, is evidenced further in the next chapter.

The date and authorship of these cup-markings in Britain are seen to be presumably the same as for the erection of the Stone Circles. That is to say, the Cup-markings were evidently engraved by the earliest wave of pioneer mine-exploiting Phoenician Barat merchants of the Late Stone and Early Bronze Age from about 2800 B.C. (or earlier) onwards,2 and many centuries before the arrival of Brutus and his Trojan Phoenician Barats in the later Bronze Age.

It will thus be seen that my new evidence for the Hitto-Phoenician origin and solar character of the cup-markings

1 By its ordinary phonetic value it = As.
2 Phoenicia and Asia Minor have not yet been explored for cup-marks, but similar cup-marks to those of Ancient Britain have been found in Palestine, which was invariably called by its Babylonian suzerains "The Land of the Hittites." Dr. Macalister found at
Gezer and neighbourhood numerous cup-markings on rocks monoliths dolmens and tombs of neolithic age (Bliss and Macalister Excavs. at Gezer, Figs. 65, 66 and p. 194, etc.), and others were found at Megiddo by Schumacher. Those figured by Macalister, especially of former figure, are in large and small cups, and in groups of 1 and 2 chiefly, also 5, 4 and 3. (See also H. Vincent, Canaan d. l'Exploration Recent. Paris, 1914, 92, etc., 128, etc., 253.)
In the Phoenician Grave Seals from
Cyprus, the Circles are mostly simple or ringed, and in groups of 2 (The Sun), but other groups also occur (see C.C. plate 12-14). And it is noteworthy that perforations (which appear to be deeper "cups" on the Standing Stones in Cyprus are also found in the Menan Tol in Cornwall and in a number in Gloucester (W.P.E. 194).


in Britain and Scandinavia, etc., establishes, from altogether new and independent data, the truth of the conjecture for a Phoenician origin of these cup-marks formerly hazarded by Prof. Nilsson of Sweden, a conjecture which was rejected by contemporary and later writers for want of any concrete or presumptive evidence in its support.

Thus we find that the prehistoric Cup-markings in Britain on many of the Stone Circles and standing stones, dolmens and other tombs of the Late Stone and Early Bronze Age, and on the rocks in their neighbourhood are of the same Sun-cult as the Stone Circles, and presumably made by the erectors of the latter. The Cup-marks form a cryptic Hitto-Sumerian religious script used as invocations, prayers and charms. These British Cup-markings, as well as the Circles and associated pre-Christian Crosses on Ancient Briton coins, are discovered to be identical with those found on the solar amulets of the Trojans, accompanied by explanatory archaic Sumerian, now observed and deciphered for the first time. The god-names, moreover, in these prehistoric British Cup-markings, and in the ancient Sumerian, as well as the numeral names, as used by the Sumerians and Hitto-Phoenicians, are the identical chief god-names and numeral names, as used by the ancient Aryans, the classic Greeks, Indo-Aryans, Goths and Ancient Britons and in English.

We have thus gained still further Positive and conclusive Proof of the Aryan Origin of the Sumerians and of the Hitto-Phoenician Origin of the Britons and Scots; and further solid evidence connecting the Early Britons with the Trojans, as recorded in the Early British Chronicles.

FIG. 43A.-Tascio or Dias horseman and horse of the Sun on Briton coins of 1st cent. B.C., with Cross and Circle marks.
(After Poste.)

This is the Horse invoked in last stanza of Amorite tablet, pp. 257-8. Note the 5 circles of Tascio, and cp. figs. on pp. xv., 285, etc.

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