Chapter VIII


Disclosing Hitto-Phoenician Origin of clan title "Uallana" or "Vellaun(us)" or "Wallon" of Briton King Cassi-wallon of Cad-wallon and of "Uchlani" title of the ruling Cassi Britons.
"The Scots arrived in Ireland from
Spain. The first that came was
Parth-olomus [Part-olon]; NENNIUS History of the Britons, 131

"The clan of Geleoin, son of Erc-ol
[Ihr?] took possession of the islands
of Orc [Orkney] . . . that is the
son of Partai . . went and took
possession of the North of the Island
of Breatan."-Books of Lecan and

THE patronymic title of "Prat" or "Prwt" used by this Phoenician Barat author of the Newton Stone inscriptions, taken in conjunction with his clan-title of "Gy-aolownie" or "Gi-oln"--now seen to be the "Geleoin" clan-title of the Irish-Scot histories above cited, and a name which drops in Briton, Gaelic, and Welsh its initial Gi, becoming "olon" or "Wallon"-leads us to the discovery of the historical identity of that king, with far-reaching effects upon the pre-history of the Britons and the hitherto unknown sources of their British Civilization. And it at the same time rehabilitates and establishes still further the historicity of

1 In the Irish-Scot originals of Nennius' (Ninian's) Latin history the original form of the name is "Part-olon."
2 In S.C.P., 23. The text gives Geleoin pp. 33, etc., often transcribed "Gleoin."



the Early British Chronicles and the traditional history books of the Irish-Scots, as cited in the heading, and in more detail below.

The juxtaposition of these two titles of the Phoenician Barat calling himself Ikr or Icar, namely Prat or Prwt and "Gi-oln," coupled with the fact that the second inscription was in the Ogam, the especial sacred script of the Irish-Scots, suggested to me that the author was the actual historical original of "Part-olon, king of the Scots" and "son of Erc-ol Parthai," who, according to the Ancient British and Irish histories, arrived from the Mediterranean by way of Spain about 400 B.C. in the Orkneys, and who first colonized and civilized Ireland. Further examination fully confirmed and established this identity.

But before examining this evidence, his clan-title of "Gy-aolownie," or as it is written in the Ogam "Gioln," first requires some notice. This name "Gy-aolownie" or "Gi-oln" is clearly the clan-name "Geleoin" or "Gleoin" of the Irish-Scot histories, to which belonged the first traditional King of the Scots in Ireland, Part-olon, and the clan which colonized North Britain in the prehistoric period, as cited in the heading, and also repeatedly referred to in the Irish traditional books. In the following further reference from these books we seem to have a memory of Part-olon's temporary location in Spain in the name "Icathir-si," which appears to be the "Agadir" name of the ancient Phoenician city-port of Gades, the modern Cadiz, outside the Pillars of Hercules; and also a memory of his remoter port of Tarsus, the ancient Tarz or Tarsi port of Cilicia, in the "Traicia" of this record:

"In the same year came [to Erin] . . . from the land of Traicia [Tarsi, ?] the clan Geleoin . . . Icathir-si [Agadirs] was their name, that is . . . son of Part-olain."1

That title also is seen to be obviously the original of the second half of the title of "Katye-Uchlani," applied by Ptolemy, the Greek geographer of Early Britain topography,

1 Book of Lecan fol.286, and S.C.P., 30, and 323. See M.D., 315, for detailed note.

to the ruling tribe of Britons who occupied the home-province of the paramount king of the Britons in Caesar's day, namely Cassi-Uallaunus, or Cassi-vellaunus, which extended from the Thames to the Wash and Humber (see later). And it is also seen to occur in its shortened form by dropping the initial G in the name of that king himself, as Cassi-Uallaun, the Cad-Wallon of the Cymri. This identity is seen in the equation:-

   Newton       Irish-Scot  Ptolemy  Roman       Cymric 
   Stone        Books

   Gy-Aolownie = Geleoin = Uchlani = Uallaun(i) = Wallon 
   or Gi-Oln     Gleoin
The origin and meaning of that clan title now prove to be Hittite. The word Ilannu is defined in Babylonian as "The Hittite,"1 whilst Allanu is "an oak"; and "Khilaani" or "Xilaani" is defined as "a Khatti (or Hittite) word for a corridor and porticoed windowed building or palace"; and it was especially used for Hitt-ite buildings in Cilicia;2 and was imitated by the Babylonians.3 This Khilaani is obviously cognate with the Akkadian Khullanu or Xullanu "wooden";4 which thus discloses the Hitt-ite or Akkadian origin of the Greek word for "wood" Xulon or Xylon, and also of the English "Yule," which significantly is spelt in Gothic, Juile or Jol, and in Early English and Anglo-Saxon Guili or Geola, which also illustrate the dropping out of the initial G in the later word. It thus presumably designated originally the wooden character of these corridors and porticoed palaces of the Hittites, and latterly was applied to the builders themselves. The Phoenician branch of the Hittites were famous for their superior wood-craft as well as their masonry buildings. Thus Solomon says to the Phoenician king of Tyre, "Thou knowest that there is not among us [Israelites] any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians [Phoenicians]."5

1 C.P.N. 31; also name of Kassis; ib. 85. 2 M.D. 315.
3 Thus in the sixth campaign of Sennacherib the latter says (I. 82) that he erected a building "like a palace of the Khatti-land, which is called in the tongue of the Muru (or "Amorite" section of Hittites), Khilaani (or Xilaani)."
4 M.D., 315. See S.E. D. under "Yule."     5 I Kings 5, 6.


It thus appears that the Khilaani timber-palaces of the Hittites with their porticoed windows and corridors were of the Gothic type, which is essentially a wooden style of architecture, especially as we shall find that the Hittite or Khatti or Guti were the primitive Goths. The Gothic style of architecture is nowadays supposed to have arisen no earlier than in the twelfth century of the Christian era ; but I long ago showed that it was used by the Indo-Scythians or Indo-Goths or Getae (i.e., Catti), in the second century A. D., in their sculptured representations of temples on the northwest frontier of India,1 And this identity of the Hittites with the Goths now also explains the occurrence of the Gothoid arch in several ancient buildings of the Hittites in their old capital at Boghaz Koi in Cappadocia, dating back to at least about 1500 B.C.

As a clan-title, this "wooden palace" builder's title is found in Herodotus as Gelonus, the son of Hercules the Phoenician2 and Gelon, a contemporary King of Syracuse, a Phoenician settlement. It was probably used to distinguish culturally the manorial palace-dwelling Hittite overlords as "The Hall-dwelling aristocracy" from the lowly aborigines who lived mostly in caves or underground abodes, such as "Picts' houses." This wooden-palace origin for it appears probable also from the tribal title of "Geloni," mentioned by Herodotus, for a colony of fur-trading merchants in the Don Valley of Scythia or Goth-land (see Map), whose city was built entirely of wood, with "lofty" walls and temples,3 and, like the Phoenicians and Early Britons, they were worshippers of the Corn Spirit Dionysos (see later) and they came from "the trading ports" of Greece,4 suggesting Phoenician ancestry, as the Phoenicians were the chief traders in the ports of Ancient Greece.

In the form of Khiluni we actually find it used as a personal name amongst the Kassis of Babylonia, with the variant of

1 See official reports of my deputation to collect "Greco-Buddhist" sculptures from Swat Valley for Imperial Museum, Calcutta in 1895. And L. A. Waddell "Greco-Buddhist sculptures from Swat Valley" in Trans. Internat. Oriental Congress, Paris, 1897. Sec. 1, 245, etc., when the photographs of these early Gothic arches were demonstrated by me.
2 Herodotus, 4, 10, 3.
3 Ib. 4, 108, 109.
4 Ib. 4, 109.


"Gilian."1 This clan-title was also used by the Britons of Brittany in its ancient form of "Gualen,"2 as well as by the Cymri for one of their chief seaports (in Carmarthen) Cet-gueli, the modern Kid-welly, which, the British Chronicles tell us, was an ancient port of the Scots or Ceti (i.e. Catti).3 And dropping its initial G (like the gueli in Cet-gueli becoming welly) to form "Uallaun" it was the royal clan-title of the paramount Briton king of the Catti and Cassi of Britain, Cassi-uallaun or Cad-wallon, and also the ruling Briton clan-title throughout a great part of Britain.4 One of the latter inscriptions, with a variant of "Katye-uchlani," is of especial interest here. It records the early Scottish clan-title of "Cat-uallauna" upon a monument of the second or third century A.D., near the south end of the Roman Wall at South Shields on Tyne.5 This fine artistic monument of a Briton lady (see Fig. 19, p. 73), as its inscription tells us, was erected significantly by a Syrian "Barat" from the ancient Phoenician city of Palmyra, on the old trade-route from Tyre and Beirut to Mesopotamia, a city possessing a famous temple to the Phoenician Sun-god Bel, with a colonnade nearly a mile long. Its dedicator calls himself thereon "Barates," and records that he married a lady of the "Cat-uallauna" clan, whose death he mourns with the single pathetic word "Alas!" Incidentally this monument is of great historical importance in showing

1 C.P.N., 77 and 80.
2 "Kad-Gualen" occurs in the ancient Breton chartulary of the Abbey of Beaufort (R. Maclagan Our Ancestors, 332).
3 N.A.B., 14; Giles' ed. 389.
4 Uellaunius occurs in an inscription at Caerleon, the ancient Briton capital at Monmouth (Corpus Inscrip. Latin. Berlin, 7, No. 126) Cat-Uallauna as clan-title of a Briton lady in inscription of about the second century at South Shields (Ephemeris Epigraphica 4, p. 212, No. 718a). Similarly, "Ceti-loin" as royal clan-title in an inscription of about fourth century at Yarrow in Selkirkshire. Catuuelauni occurs as name of tribe on monument of about third century at Castlesteads, Cumberland. C.B., 3. 456. Uelauni was a clan of Alpine people (Corpus Inscript. Latin. 5, No. 7817, 45) and Uelaunis, a man's name or title in Ancient Spain (ib. 3, No. 1589, 1590), where "Cat-alonia" is the name of an old province of the Phoenicians there.
5 For details of this monument see Northumberland Archaeolog. Socy's Ephemeris in previous note. I have personally examined this fine sculpture more than once in company with my old friend Dr. Jas. Drummond, formerly resident there, and to whom I am indebted for fine photos of the monument and its inscriptions by Miss Flagg.


that a Barat merchant from Syria-Phoenicia had come to Britain in the second or third century A.D., and had intermarried there with a Barat or Briton kinswoman of the Cat-uallauna or "Cath-luan" royal clan.

This Cat-uallauna clan also existed in the Selkirk district of Scotland about the fifth century A.D. At Yarrow stands a funereal monolith with a rustic Latin inscription of about the fifth century A.D., dedicated to the memory of a chieftain of the "Ceti-loin" clan-a monument which I have personally examined and taken a squeeze-impression of its inscription.1

The local tradition also of this "Gy-aolownie" or "Gi-oln" clan-title seems significantly to have survived in the neighbourhood of the Newton Stone in "Clyan's Dam," the name of an embankment near the Don to the South of the Mount Bennachie (see map, p. 19) and in the adjoining "Cluny," or anciently Clony or Kluen2, castle in the neighbourhood. And in the latter usage it seems noteworthy that the epithet is parallel to the use of "Khilaani" to denote a Hittite palace.3

[The dropping out of the initial guttural G is a not uncommon dialectic change ; thus it is seen in this actual word as "Cet-gueli" becoming the modern- "Kid-welly"; similarly "Gwalia" becomes "Wales"; "Gwite" or "Guith" (the other name for the Isle of Wight even in Alfred's day) becomes "Wight"; and "William" is the remains of an earlier "Gulielm" or "Guillame"; and Catye-uchlani became "Cat-wallaun," or "Cad-wallon." Thus "Prat-gioln" of our Newton Stone inscription, presumably with the meaning of "Prat-the-Lord,"4 became dialectically "Part-olon." And be the meaning of "gioln" what it may, the fact nevertheless is clearly established that "Prat-gioln" is the source of the later form of "Part-olon."]

1 The first lines read Hic memoriae Ceti-loin, followed by what Mr. Craig Brown reads as ennig fii princep et nudi Dumno gen, etc. A cast of this monument is in the museum at Hawick.
2 This name has been supposed to be derived from the Welsh glan, "a brink or side," but apart from the anomaly of a Welsh name in this locality, its use here as "Clyan's Dam" presumes a human sense.
3 Similarly "Cluny" is found in France for the famous galleried monastic palace of that name.
4 In Irish-Scottish, glonn = "champion, hero," in the Book of Lecan; see C.A.N., 341.


Fig. 19- Briton Lady of Cat-uallaun clan, wife of Barates, a Syrio-Phoenician.
(From sculpture of about 2nd century A.D. in South Shields)1

1. Reproduced by permission of publishers of Handbook to Roman Wall.

Thus the Phoenician Barat author of our Newton Stone inscription is revealed as the historical original of the traditional Part-olon, the first "king of the Scots," who arrived from the Mediterranean via Spain about 400 B.C. and introduced civilization into Ireland, and whose clan colonized and civilized North Britain, as cited in the heading.

The detailed account of King Part-olon's arrival in Ireland, as preserved in the traditional histories of the Irish-Scots, the historicity of which is thus established-now becomes of great historical interest and importance; and especially the record of his relations with the North of Britain and Don Valley. At the outset it is to be noted that in the Latin versions of the Ancient British Chronicles by the Romish monks Nennius (or Ninian) and Geoffrey, the name "Partolon," as it occurs in the Irish-Scot vernacular histories, is latinized into "Partholomus" in order to adapt it to the New Testament apostolic name of Bartholomus or Bartholomew.

The account of Part-olon's arrival in Ireland is thus recorded by Nennius in his history of the Britons written about 800 A.D.1:-

"Long after this (the arrival of the Picts) the Scotti arrived in Erinn from the coast of Spain. The first that came was Partholonius, with a thousand followers, men and women. But, a plague coming suddenly upon them, they all perished in one week."

The statement here that he arrived from Spain is of great significance, as further evidence of his being an Aryan Phoenician, coming, like Brut, by way presumably of the famous Phoenician seaport of Gades (the modern Cadiz) or "House of the Gads (or Phoenicians)"-Gad being, as we shall see, an especial variant of "Catti" used by the Phoenicians, and coined upon the tribal title of Khat or Xat, i.e. "Scot,"; and he is called in the Chronicles a "Scot." He is also reported by Geoffrey to have come from Spain; see later.

The traditional place of his landing in Ireland is stated in the Ogam "Book of Ballymote"2 to have been Scene in the Bay of Kemnare in Kerry comity, and that place and

1 N.A.B., 13.
2 Dates to about the tenth century A.D. in its present recension.


district is significantly the chief seat of the Ogam-inscribed monuments in the British Isles.1 The old saga says:-

"They landed from their safe barks,
In the clear blue port of the fair land,
In the bay of bright shields of Scene."2

The devastating "plague" above referred to was possibly the hostile attack of the aboriginal race in Erin called Fomori, who, the Irish Chronicles tell us, attacked Part-olon and his party, but were defeated by him in a great battle;3 though Geoffrey's Chronicles, on the other hand, state that his descendants continued to live in and colonize ultimately the whole of Erin; and the Irish Chronicles refer to these descendants of his sons there in later times.

But his inscription in Aberdeenshire now shows that he himself eventually left Kerry for the North of Scotland - possibly through a spirit of adventure for fresh worlds to conquer--leaving, according to tradition, two sons settled in Kerry.4

Some details of Part-olon's voyage from Spain via Ireland to the North of Scotland are preserved in Geoffrey's traditional Chronicles, but these appear to confuse his emigration northwards to Aberdeen with his settlement on the Irish coast of Kerry. Geoffrey records that Part-olon arrived in Ireland during the reign of the Briton king named Gurgiunt, who, about 407 B.C., succeeded his father King Belinus, the twenty-second in direct succession from Brutus (see Appendix I), and who ruled nominally the whole of Britain from Cornwall to Caithness,5 with his chief capitals as Osc (or Caerleon) on the Usk, and Tri-novantum (latterly London) on the Thames. He also inherited from his father the province of "Dacia" (which, from the context, was obviously in Denmark, and not the Dacia of the

1 Of the 193 Ogam-inscribed monuments in Ireland 92 are in Kerry; and in the district of Scene in that county are 16 (B.O.I., 378).
2 Book of Ballymote, trans. by Dr. Connellan, f. 12 ; and compare K.H.I.J., 67. "Scene" is spelt in ancient texts "Sgene," obviously cognate to "Scone," the crowning place of the ancient Scot kings near Perth.
3 R.H.L., 589.
4 Irish Chronicles call these sons Slainge and Rudraige (Roderick) K.H.J., 62. 5 G.C., 3, 5.


Danube Valley) and he was returning thence through the Orkneys with his fleet when he met Part-olon there with his fleet.

Geoffrey records: "At that time Gurgiunt was passing through the Orkney islands, he found thirty ships full of men and women. And upon his enquiry of them the reason of their coming thither, their Duke named Partholoim approached him in a respectful and submissive manner, and desired pardon and peace, telling him that he had been driven out of Spain, and was sailing round those seas in quest of a habitation. He also desired some small Part of Britain to dwell in, that they might put an end to their tedious wanderings; for it was now a year and a half since he and his company had been out at sea. When Gurgiunt Brabtruc understood that they had come from Spain, and were called Bar-clenses, he granted their petition, and sent men with them to Ireland . . . and assigned it to them. There they grew up and increased in number, and have possessed that island to this very day."1

This Orkney location for Part-olon and his fleet whilst on their voyage from "Spain" appears to be a reference to his sea-passage from his colony in Kerry to the Garrioch Vale of the Don of Aberdeen, the site of his monument in question. That portion of the narrative which describes him as returning from the Orkneys to Kerry is presumably a confusion, introduced by later Irish copyists and translators of these ancient chronicles before Geoffrey's time, having substituted "Ciarraighe"2 or Kerry of "Ireland" (where Part-olon had, according to the tradition, we have seen, established an Irish colony) for "Garrioch," the district of our Newton monument in the north-east of Scotland and not very far distant by sea from the Orkneys. Geoffrey expressly states that Part-olon "desired some small part of Britain" -not Ireland, though Ireland is mentioned later on, presumably to adapt it to the Irish-Scot tradition. And the relatively short stay of Part-olon in Kerry and his sudden disappearance from there, ascribed conveniently to "plague," would be thus accounted for, as well as his permanent colonization of the south of Ireland by the two sons left there.

Indeed, I find that positive, more or less contemporary,

1 G.C. 3, 12.
2 This is the Irish form of the name "Kerry," BOI, 16.


inscriptional evidence for the presence of the early Catti or Khatti with their Cassi Sun-Cross, in the region of the Orkneys, actually exists to confirm the historicity of this tradition of the visit of the early Catti to "the Orkney Islands."

(At Lunasting on the mainland of Shetland ("or Land of the Shets," which name, as we shall find, is a softened variant of "Khat," or "Xat," or "Hitt-ite," and the "Ceti" of Early Scot monuments) is a pre-Christian Cross monument hearing an Ogam inscription and on its top a large engraved Sun-Cross of the "Kassi" type (see later). This inscription also has proved such a puzzle to Celtic experts, who have variously deemed it to be "Celtic," "Gaelic," "Welsh," etc., that the Celtic scholar, Dr. A. Macbain, petulantly declares that: "it is neither Welsh nor any other language!"1 It reads however, I find, without difficulty in a dialect of the Gothic of the Eddas (see text in foot-note2); and with strict literalness in translating the Gothic words reads as follows:-

"(This) Cross at Xattni-Cuh (city) of the Xatl (or Khatt).3 (This) Cross (is erected by) Xahht Manann (son of) Hacc Ffeff (who) rests aneath,4 weening in hope5 nigh."6

1 W. F. Skene, Highlands of Scotland, 1902, 398.
2 It is published by B.O.I., 365, Pl.49; and compare Southesk P.S.A.S., 1884, 201f., whose transliteration of the Ogam differs but little from mine, and in particular he renders the critical names in question "Xattui-cuh" "Aatts" and "Aahhtt" respectively, transliterating the same sigh X, when loosely written as Aa in the two latter instances. On the other hand, Dr. W. Bannerman (P.S.A.S. 1908, 343f.) reads the inscription in reverse direction or upside down ! My transliteration of this Lunasting inscription into Roman letters is as follows-the inherent short a of the consonants being expressed in small type and the other letters in capitals:
3 The final s in the text XaTTS is the genitive not only in Gothic but in Hitto-Sumerian and Kassi, and it thus corresponds to possessive affix 's of the English language, now disclosed to be derived from the Hitto-Sumerian, through the British Gothic. On the Cult affix, see subsequent text.
4 The Nedt of the text is the literal equivalent of the English "neatly" the Gothic Eddie Nedr, the Scandinavian Nad, "rest," neath, beneath; (compare V.D. 448, 450) and is, I find, derived from the Sumerian and Kassi Nad "lie down, resting place." Compare B.B.W. 11, 203 - which is thus disclosed to be the remote Hitto-Sumerian source of the Scottish "nod" and English "neath" and "nether."
5 The On of the text is the Eddie On. for Von, Won or Van, the English "ween" and "fain" and "yearn" and is usually translated by Scandinavians as meaning "hope" (c p. V.D., 472, 684,-5). It appears to be derived from the Sumerian Inu "to plan, heart, secret" (cp. B.B.W. ii, 14, and P.S.L. 192.).
6 The final Na of the text seems the Eddic Na or "nigh" (cp. V.D., 447).


The terns Cuh for "town" or "city," for this old town of the Khatti or Xatti in Shetland, where this - "Cassi" Cross monument is recorded as having been erected, is of especial Hitt-ite significance. It is now disclosed as being obviously the equivalent of the common modern name "Koi" for a "town" throughout the old "Land of the Hittites" in Asia-Minor. Thus the old chief capital of the Hitt-ites in Cappadocia is still called Boghaz Koi or "Boghaz town." It also seems to me to be the Hitt-ate origin of the common modern term for town or or village in Indo-Persia, namely the nasalized "Ga(n)w." It also seems to be the Hitt-ate origin presumably of the affix Cu, Go, Gow of place-names in several of the older centres of civilization in Scotland, such as "Glas-cu"-the old spelling of "Glasgow"-and thus giving the meaning of "Town of the Gaels (?)"; "Cads-cu" or "Town of the Cads (or Phoenicians)," the old documentary spelling of Cadzow, the original name for Hamilton (residence of the premier Duke in Scotland) on the Clyde, with its old pre-Christian Cross (see Fig. in Chapter XIX.); "Lar-go" on the Fife coast, with its cave-deposits of prehistoric men, "standing stones" and pre-Christian Cross monuments; "Linlith-gow," an ancient residence of the kings in Scotland; and so on.

Further evidence for the presence of early Khatti in the Orkney region is forthcoming from the district-names on the adjoining mainland. Thus "Caithness," the ancient "Kataness" or "Nose (of the Land) of the Caiths or Kata," a people who are now disclosed to be the Catti or Khatti (or Hittites). And the contiguous "Sutherland" was, up till the Norse period of about the ninth century A.D., called "Catuc" or "Catland"1 or "Land of the Cats," that is, the "Catti" or Hitt-ites. And the Duke of Sutherland is still called locally "Diuc Cat" or "Duke of the Cats" (i.e., Catti).]

Moreover, the tribal title given to Part-olon by Geoffrey above noted, as "of the Bar-clenses" confirms still further his identity with the Phoenician author of our Newton Stone inscription. This prefix "Bar" is obviously the early contracted form of "Barat," which was written by the Sumer-Phoenicians simply as "Ba-ra"; and "clenses" is obviously a latinized form of our Phoenician's "Gyaolownie" or "Gioln"-the "Uchlani" title of tire Cassi tribe of Catti, which, we have already seen, represents apparently the Hittite

1. Cp. Mackay's commentary on Ptolemy's Geography of Scotland in P.S.A.S. 1908, 80.

title of "Khilani," and a term which was especially current in Cilicia.1 whence, our author tells us in his inscription, he came. And we thus see why the Briton Catti king, with lineage directly continuous from the first Brit-on king "Brut" (see Appendix I), and living in the more highly civilized part of Britain in the south, with only nominal rule north of the Forth (according to the Chronicles), should have befriended his fellow-clansman Part-olon in extending Hitto-Phoenician civilization and colonization in this remoter part of Britain, when he learned that he was of the "Bar-clenses," for this was the same Catti or Hitt-ate clan to which that Early Briton king himself belonged.

The further title given to Part-olon of "Son of Sera or Sru" in the Irish chronicles2 is a striking confirmation of his Hitto-Phoenician ancestry. This ancestral name "Sera or Sru" obviously preserves the patronymic king Barat's front title of "Sar," which was the favourite form of the ancestral Barat's name selected by the founder of the First Phoenician Dynasty in Mesopotamia, who regularly called himself "Son (or descendant) of Sar."3 It thus attests the remarkable authenticity of the tradition of the Irish-Scots, whilst further confirming the Aryan Hitto-Phoenician ancestry of Part-olon, who is now revealed on the solid basis of concrete history as the first civilizer, not only of Ireland, but of the north of Scotland, about four hundred years before the dawn of the Christian era.

The migration of Part-olon from Cilicia to the British Isles about 390 B.C., according to the British Chronicle historical tradition (see Appendix I), was probably owing to the massacring invasion and annexation of Cilicia and Asia Minor by the Spartan Greeks in 399 B.C. These Spartan invaders were significantly opposed by the Phoenician fleet in 394 B.C., but not finally defeated by the Phoenicians at

1 MD, 315.
2 Book of Leinster (Book of Dun) 15a, 234, etc. "Partolon mac Sdairn meic Seura meic Sru (see CAN 229). For reading Sera see R.H.L., 580f. (Goialdus in Topographia Hibernica (Dict. 302, Rolls ed. 5, p. 140) calls him "Sere filius de stirpe japhet filii Noe (Noah)."
3 Detailed proofs in my Aryan Origin of the Phoenicians.


sea till 387 B.C. (see Appendix I). And the escape of Part-olon about 390 B.C. (and Part-olon is recorded to "have been driven out" of his country), occurring in this interval of the occupation of Cilicia by the Spartan enemies of the Phoenicians is significant, and is in keeping with the record in the British Chronicle, which is thus confirmed by the positive facts of known contemporary history of Part-olon's homeland in Eastern Asia Minor at that period.

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