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The Spanish Army proceeds on its march to Mexico.


AFTER a repose of seventeen days in Tlascala, it was determined to prosecute our march to Mexico. Upon this subject much difference of opinion existed, the rich settlers of Cuba being very adverse to it. The resolution which we had taken grieved our friends of Tlascala, who earnestly advised us by no means to trust Montezuma or his people, nor their smooth and courteous words and manners; for that they were treacherous in the extreme, and would either retain us to breed men for Montezuma’s service, or in a favorable hour, would fall upon, and destroy us. But, in case of our having hostilities with them, they advised us to kill all, neither sparing the rising youth, nor the aged counsellor. Cortes thanked, and proposed to them, an amicable treaty with their neighbours the Mexicans; but they would not hear of this, saying, they could not trust those, who would only under the veil of peace, better execute their treacherous designs. In regard to our road, the Mexican ambassadors earnestly recommended that by Cholula; but our friends of Tlascala as strongly advised us by no means to go that way, but by Guaxocingo. Nevertheless we determined to go by Cholula, intending to remain there, until we could by negociation obtain a peaceable entry into Mexico. Cortes therefore lent messengers to that place, to inform the chiefs of his intention, and expressing his dissatisfaction that they had not come to wait upon him.

At this time arrived four of the principal nobility of Mexico, with a rich present. It consisted of gold to the value of ten thousand crowns, and ten bales of the finest mantles of feathers. Having saluted Cortes with the profoundest respect, the ambassadors delivered the message of their

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their monarch, which was to this effect. That he wondered at our stay amongst a people so poor and base as the Tlascalans, who were robbers, and unfit even for slaves; and he earnestly requested that we would immediately visit his capital. Cortes replied assuring them that he would shortly pay his respects to the great Montezuma, requesting their stay with him during the interval. He also determined to send two cavaliers as ambassadors, to wait on Montezuma; and view, the city of Mexico. The persons he pitched on were Pedro de Alvarado, and B. Vasquez de Tapia. They set out on their journey, accompanying the former Mexican ambassadors who had hitherto continued with us. I was at this time ill of my wounds, and of a fever; and therefore incapable of observing exactly all that passed, but I know, that their going thither appeared to us a very unwise measure, and in consequence of our remonstrances, they were recalled.

The chiefs of Cholula now sent us four men of low condition, with a very dry and uncourteous answer to our message, and without any present whatever. This evidently appeared to be done in contempt, and Cortes sent notice to them, that if their chiefs did not wait upon him in three days, they should be considered as rebels; but that in case of their compliance, he would be happy to esteem them as brothers, and had much to tell them of great importance. They then sent word that they dared not to come amongst their enemies the Tlascalans, who they knew had misrepresented them and the great Montezuma to us; but they requested that we would visit their city, where they would give us an honorable reception. When the Tlascalans saw our determination to accept this proposal they told us, that since we were resolved to neglect their advice, they expected that we would take with us ten thousand of their belt warriors. This was thought two great a number for a peaceable visit; we however agreed to take two thousand, who were immediately ready to attend us.

Being well prepared against whatever might happen, we now set out on our march, and arrived in the evening at a river, distant a short

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league from Cholula, where a stone bridge is now built across it. Here some of the chiefs of the city came to congratulate us on our arrival. Continuing our march on the next day, when we came, near the city, we were met by the chiefs and priests in a body, all dressed in cassocks of cotton, resembling those of the Zapotecans. The chiefs presented their incense to Cortes, and after apologizing for not having gone to Tlascala, requested that he would not permit so large a body of their enemies to enter the city. This appearing reasonable, Cortes sent Alvarado and De Oli, to desire our allies to hut themselves in the field, and we then marched on, attended only by the Indians of Cempoal, and those who drew the artillery. Before he entered the city he, made known to these people the objects of his mission, as has been already frequently related. They replied without hesitation, that to our monarch they were perfectly ready to yield immediate obedience, which they did; but that as to abandoning their ancient religion, they could not comply with any such demand. When we entered their city, we were concluded through an immense crowd which filled the streets and terraces, to our quarters in some large apartments, which contained us, our allies of Cempoal, and those who conveyed the artillery and baggage.

During the time we flayed here, a plot was concerted by the ambassadors of Montezuma, for the entry of twenty thousand of his troops into this city, to fall upon us; and several houses were filled with the poles and leathern collars, in which they were to have brought us prisoners to Mexico, but that God was pleased to foil their designs.

For the first two days, we were entertained as well as we could wish, but on the third we received no provisions, nor did either chief of priest make his appearance. The few inhabitants that we saw, also, withdrew from us with a mysterious kind of sneer in their faces, and Cortes at this time applying to the ambassadors to procure for us our provisions as usual, all that we obtained was a little wood and water, conveyed by some old men, who told us that no maize was to be had.

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On this day ambassadors arrived from Montezuma, who, in very disrespectful terms, forbid our approach to Mexico, and required an immediate answer. Cortes mildly expressed his surprise at this alteration; he made them a present, and requested a short delay, which they acceded to. He then summoning his soldiers, warned us to be alert, for that he suspected some great treachery. The chiefs having refused to attend him, he immediately sent some soldiers to a great temple hard by our quarters, with orders to bring, as quietly as they could, two of the priests. In this they succeeded without any difficulty, and the priests being brought before the general, he made a present to each, and then enquired the reason of these extraordinary appearances. One of them was a person of rank, and authority over all the temples of the city, in the manner of a hilltop; this person assured him, that if he had an opportunity of speaking to the chiefs, he could persuade them to come; and being dismissed for this purpose, he was as good as his word, for he soon returned accompanied by several of them. Cortes first asked the cause of the change in their behaviour; he then demanded an immediate supply of provisions, and also a number of their people for the milking day, to convey the baggage and artillery. The chiefs appeared confounded, but at length promised to send in provisions; though they said they had been forbidden by Montezuma, and that he was not satisfied that we should go any farther. Just at this time, three of our friends of Cempoal called out the general, and informed him, that they had discovered hard by our quarters, pitfalls covered with wood and earth, and that clearing away the earth, and looking into one of them, they had found it set with sharp stakes; that the terraces of all the houses were filled with stones and parapeted with sods, and that they had seen a barricade of strong timber in one of the streets. At this instant arrived also eight Tlascalans, from their army which was lying in the old; they warned Cortes against the intended attack, for it had come to their knowledge, that the people of the place had, on the preceding night, sacrificed to their war god seven victims, five of whom were children, and they had also observed, that they were withdrawing their women, children, and effects, from the place.

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Hereupon Cortes sent orders to the Tlascalans to hold themselves in readiness, and rejoining the chiefs and priests of the town, he desired them to be under no apprehension, but warned them not to deviate from their obedience, on pain of infant punishment. He then demanded of them two thousand of’ their warriors to accompany him on his march, on the ensuing day; this they readily promised, thinking that it would tend to facilitate their projects; they therefore took their leave very well contented, and sent notice of our intentions to all those concerned with them. Cortes then sent Donna Marina to bring back the two priests whom he had before spoken to. In this she succeeded, and Cortes obtained from them the following intelligence.

They told him, that Montezuma, on our; approach to Mexico, had become very unsettled in his mind, sometimes ordering that we should be received with honor, and at other times that we should not be permitted to pass; but that having lately consulted his gods, they had declared, that here in Cholula we were all to be put to death, or made prisoners, for which purpose he had sent twenty, thousand of his troops, one half of which number was in the city, and the other concealed half a league from it. That the plan of their attack was fettled, and that twenty of us were allotted to be sacrificed to the gods of Cholula. Cortes rewarded then handsomely, and enjoining strict secresy, desired them to bring, to him all the chiefs, at the time he appointed. He then summoned a council of the ablest and wisest soldiers of his army, sore of whom were for returning immediately, and others proposed various measures, but at length all agreed in the necessity of severely punning this treachery, as an example to other places. It was therefore determined, that we should carry on the appearance of our intended march, preparing our baggage, and concealing our other measures, and that within the high walls of the courts where we were quartered, punishment should be inflicted on the Cholulans. With the ambassadors of Montezuma it was thought most prudent to dissemble; we therefore told them of our having discovered the treason of the people, who had aspersed Montezuma, as being the author of it; and we proposed

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to them, to have no more intercourse with the inhabitants, but to retire to the apartment of Cortes. They solemnly declared their ignorance of the transaction, and contrary to their inclination we now put them under a good guard, for the night, during which our whole force remained under arms.

On this night, the wife of a cacique, an old woman, who was acquainted with the plot, came secretly to Donna Marina whose appearance had attracted her regard, and invited her to her own house; as a place of security from the danger which was ready to overwhelm us, making at the same time a proposal to her, to accept as a husband, her son, the brother of a boy who accompanied her. Donna Marina, with a profusion of thanks, and with her usual acuteness and pretence of mind, agreed to all that she proposed, but said that she wanted some one with whom to entrust her effects. She then obtained information of every particular of the business, all which the old woman informed her she had learned from her husband, who was chief of one of the divisions of the city, and was then with his warriors, giving directions for their junction with the Mexican forces. She added, that she had known it three days before, in consequence of presents which had been sent from Mexico to the different chiefs, her husband having received at that time a golden drum.* Donna Marina, desiring this woman and her son to remain where they were and take care of her effects, hastened to Cortes, and informed him of all that had pared, and that the person from whom she had the information was in her apartment; in consequence of which, Cortes immediately sent for her, and the woman on being brought into his presence confirmed all that she had said to Donna Marina, and which exactly agreed with the other information he had received.

When day broke, the hurry of the chiefs, priests, and people, and the satisfaction which appeared in their countenances, were as great as 

* A golden drum was borne by a general in chief.

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if they already had us in their cages. They brought many more of their warriors to attend us than we had required, insomuch that the courts, which remain at this day as a memorial of the event, large as they were, could not contain them. We were all prepared for what was to be done, the soldiers armed with sword and buckler were placed at the gate of the great court, in order to prevent any one from escaping, and our general was on horseback, attended by a strong guard. When he saw how the people crowded in he exclaimed, “How anxious are these traitors to feast upon our flesh! But God will disappoint them.” He sent directions to the two priests who had given the information, to go immediately to their houses, and this he did in order to five their lives; then, causing the rest of the priests, and all the chiefs to be brought to him, he calmly asked them what was their reason for plotting to destroy us, and what we had done, more than require them to abandon their abominable customs, and endeavour to instruct them in the articles of our holy faith; and that for these reasons only, they had made preparations to cut us all off. That their evil intentions appeared by their having withdrawn the women from the town, and that when we required the provisions which they withheld from us, they had insulted us by sending in wood and water. He said that he knew of the ambuscade that was placed upon the road which they expected us to go, and that the recompense which they intended for our holy and friendly services was, to kill and eat us, for which purpose the pots were already boiling, and prepared with salt, pepper, and tomatas. That if they were determined to attack us, it was better to do it in a manly way, as the Tlascalans did; he added, that he also knew that twenty of us were to be sacrificed to their idols, to whom they had made a propitiatory offering of seven of their brethren, but the victory the idols had promised them, it was not in their power to give, and the effects of their treason were now ready to fall on their own heads.

This being successively explained to the natives by Donna Marina, they confessed the whole of the charge, but said that it was planned entirely by the orders of Montezuma. Cortes replied, that such crimes 

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were never suffered to pass without punishment, and he then commanded a musket to be fired, as the signal for slaughter, which was waited for us, who were as I have related well prepared, and falling upon the multitude then inclosed within the courts, we executed their punishment on them in a manner that they will ever remember; for a number of them were killed by us instantly, and many afterwards burned alive, very contrary to the expectations they had formed from the promises of their gods.† Within two hours our allies the Tlascalans arrived, and made a desperate slaughter of them in the streets, and as loon as the Cholulans had ceased to make resistance, the former ravaged the city, plundering and making them (laves without our having it in our power to prevent them; and on the day after, when the intelligence had reached Tlascala, fresh hordes crowded hither for the same purpose. It was now absolutely necessary to restrain them at all risks: Cortes therefore ordered the chiefs to withdraw their troops, which they immediately did, and soon after, some priests and chieftains who presided over other parts of the town, which they alledged not to have been engaged in the conspiracy, waited on us, and requested a remission of punishment. The two priests formerly mentioned, and the old woman who was so anxious to be the mother-in-law of Donna Marina, came also, and petitioned to the same effect. Cortes appeared greatly enraged, and calling for the Mexican ambassadors, declared in their presence, that if he did not destroy the whole city as it deserved, it was out of respect to the great Montezuma, whose vassals the inhabitants were; but that for his sake he pardoned them. He then commanded the Tlascalans to deliver up those whom they had made prisoners: this, however unwillingly, they in a great measure complied with, many persons being set at liberty, but after all they retained a good booty of gold, mantles, cotton, salt, and slaves. An amnesty for the past being proclaimed, and Cortes having reconciled the Tlascalans and Cholulans, the latter suggested that they were apprehensive our general would appoint their new chief, the former one having been put to death. Cortes upon

† Above six thousand Cholulans were put to death on this occasion.

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this enquired who was the regular successor, and being informed that it was the brother of the late head cacique, he appointed him to the chieftainry. As soon as the inhabitants had. returned, and order was restored, he summoned together all the priests and chiefs, in order to exhort them upon the subject, of religion, advising them to renounce their odious practices, and as an instance of the inefficacy of their idols, he reminded them of the manner in which they had been lately deceived by their false promises. He therefore proposed that they should be pulled down and broken to pieces, and an altar and cross erected in their place. The latter was immediately done, but as to thy prostration of the idols, by the advice of the reverend father it was postponed for a time, from motives of prudence, and a just consideration of the uncertainty of our situation.

The city of Cholula much resembled Valladolid, being in a fertile plain, very thickly inhabited; it is surrounded by fields of maize, pepper, and maguey. They had an excellent manufacture of earthenware, of three colours, red, black, and white, painted in different patterns, with which Mexico and all the neighbouring countries were supplied, as Castille is by those of Talavera and Plasencia. The city had at that time above a hundred lofty white towers, which were the temples of their idols, one of which was held in peculiar veneration. The principal temple was higher than that of Mexico, and each of these buildings was placed in a spacious court.

The Mexican troops which had been posted in ambuscade, with ramparts and trenches to oppose to the cavalry, hearing what had happened to their associates, made a rapid retreat to their city, and carried the news to their monarch; but he had already heard his misfortune from two of his ambassadors who had been with us. It is said that he immediately ordered a sacrifice to his gods, and shut himself up at his devotions for two entire days, with ten of his chief priests, in order to obtain an answer from them, relative to his future destiny. The reply which they gave was to this effect; that he should send an embassy to

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exculpate himself in regard to what had passed, and to invite us into Mexico, where, by cutting off the water, or raising the bridges, he could easily destroy us, or retain us for breed. The news of our late successes spread rapidly, and the natives were more than ever convinced at we were beings possessed of a preternatural power and intelligence. My readers will be perhaps by this time as tired of the detail of the transaction of Cholula, as I am of writing it. I must however mention the cages full of men and boys fattening for sacrifice, which were in this city. All these Cortes destroyed, and sent the poor prisoners to their homes, giving positive orders to the priests to desist from the practice in future, which they promised that they would, but what signified their promises!

This which I have related is the reality of the endless story of the Lord Bishop of Chiapa, F. Bart. de las Casas, who says we put these people to death merely for pastime; but I must observe, that certain reverend Franciscans, after the conquest of Mexico, being some of the first his Majesty sent to New Spain, went to Cholula on purpose to make the strictest enquiry; the result of which was, that they found the affair to have happened exactly as I have related it. If this punishment had not taken place our lives would have been in the greatest danger, and had we been destroyed this country of New Spain would not have been so easily gained, or a second expedition attempted; or if it had, it might have failed of success, as the natives would have defended their coasts, and have thus remained for ever in their idolatry. I have heard a reverend Franciscan named Fray Torribio de Motilinea say, that if the punishment could have been avoided, and that there had been no cause given for it, it would have been better; but that since it was done, good effects had resulted, as the natives were thereby convinced of the falsehood and deception of their idols, which they in consequence despised, as a proof of which they afterwards took down the principal one, putting another in its place.

Having now passed fourteen days in the city of Cholula, Cortes 

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summoned a council composed of certain of officers and soldiers, men of equal valour and wisdom, and his particular friends, for without out advice he entered upon no measure of consequence, and it was thereby determined, to send a respectful message to the great Montezuma, and to inform him that in compliance with the orders of our king we were on our way to pay our respects to him in person. We then related the transaction of Cholula, where the treason which was meditated against us had come in sufficient time to our knowledge, from which nothing that concerned us could be concealed, adding, that if we. had not punished it to the full extent, it was only out of respect to him, whole vassals the people of that city were; that the, chiefs and priests had informed us, that what they did was at his instigation, which we could not believe of so great a prince, after the proffers of friendship which he had made to us, for that had he been inclined to hostility, he would have met us in the field, but that in the case of a battle, field or town, day or night, was alike to us.

The Mexican monarch was very doubtful and pensive, when he considered the events which had passed. After a variety of determinations he at length sent to us six of his first nobility, with a present of gold to the value of two thousand crowns, and several bales of fine mantles. When the ambassadors came into the pretence of Cortes, saluting him with profound respect, they delivered a message from their monarch, wherein he laboured to exculpate himself in regard to what had happened in Cholula, and concluded by inviting us to his court. Cortes entertained these persons with his usual politeness, arid retaining three of them to go with us as guides, sent the others back to inform their monarch that he was setting out upon his march. When the Tlascalan chiefs heard our determination, they renewed to Cortes their warnings to beware of Mexican treachery, but added, that if he was determined to proceed, they would send with him ten thousand of their warriors. Cortes thanking them observed, that such a body would not accord well with an amicable visit, but requested one thousand men for the baggage and artillery, which number was instantly provided. Our

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Our faithful allies of Cempoal being apprehensive of the vengeance of the Mexicans, now petitioned for leave to return to their homes. Cortes dismissed them with handsome presents, and having written to Juan de Escalante, informing him of his determination, we set forward on our march.

We quitted Cholula in great regularity, sending out our cavalry patroles to reconnoitre, supported by light infantry, our arms in order, and the cavalry by threes in front. Marching on thus, “With the beard always upon the shoulder,” we arrived at a little place called the hamlet of Iscalpan, in a mountainous ridge in the district of Guaxocingo, four leagues distant from Cholula, where we were met by the chiefs, accompanied by others who inhabit the skirts of the volcano. They brought presents of provisions and gold, of trifling value, telling Cortes he should receive it, not considering how much it was worth, but the inclination of those who gave it. They advised us against going to Mexico, as being a very strong city and the inhabitants warlike, and they also told us, that on ascending the next mountain, we should find two roads, very broad, one whereof went to a place called Chalco, the other to Talmanalco, both, places subject to the Mexicans. That the one road was very open and convenient, the other difficult, being obstructed by large pine trees felled across it, and that the first mentioned road, had an ambuscade of Mexicans laid hard by it, among some rocks, in order to tall upon us as we passed; they therefore recommended us to go by that where the trees had been felled, offering to send a number of their people to clear it. Cortes expressed his gratitude for their advice, saying that by God’s permission he would pursue his route, accordingly.

Early on the morning of the next day we set forward on our march, and reached the summit of the ridge about twelve o’clock, where we found the roads as they had been described to us, some of the felled trees being to be seen at this day. Here we halted a little in order to consider how we should proceed, and Cortes calling upon the ambassa- 

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dors of the great Montezuma, enquired of them the meaning of these appearances. They replied, that we should take that road which led to Chalco, where we should be well received, and that the other road was longer and more difficult. Hereupon Cortes said, that he would notwithstanding prefer it, and our Indian allies clearing the way before us, we proceeded up the mountain, where the weather was exceedingly cold, and presently came a very heavy fall of snow, so that, the whole country was covered with it. After some time we arrived at certain houses which are for the purpose of lodging travellers, where we halted, and found provisions in plenty. Having placed our guards, we rested for that night, and continued our march in the morning, and at the hour of high mass arrived at the town of Talmanalco, where we had an hospitable reception. The people of the neighbouring districts, that is to say of Chalco, Mecameca, and Acingo where the canoes are kept, waited on Cortes here with a present of gold worth about a hundred and fifty crowns, some mantles, and eight women. Cortes received them kindly, promising them his friendship, and a number of the natives being now collected, he desired the reverend father of the order of mercy to explain to them the doctrines of our holy faith, and require them to renounce their idolatrous worship; he also informed them of the great power of our monarch, and that we came in his name to redress wrongs. When the people heard this, they began to make secret complaints of the tyranny of Montezuma, who deprived them of their wives and daughters if handsome, and took the men to work like slaves, compelling them to convey for him, stones, timber, and corn, and seizing their lands for the service of his idols. Cortes condoled with them in kind words, desiring them to have patience for the present, and that they should soon be redressed. He then desired that some might go, and report to him the state of the road, but they told him there was no occasion, as it was perfectly clear.

Just as we were letting out attended by twenty Indians from this place, four of the principal nobility of Mexico arrived, and having paid their compliments, and delivered their presents, thus addressed

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Cortes. “Malintzin, this present our monarch sends you, saying, how grieved he is that you should take so much trouble in coming from a distant country to see him, and that he has already told you he will give you gold, silver, and chalchihuis for your Teules, on condition that you will not approach Mexico. He now repeats his request, and promises that he will send after you, a great treasure of gold, silver, and jewels, for your king, four loads of gold for yourself, and a load for each of your brethren, on condition you return immediately; for as to advancing to Mexico, that, you cannot do, as the whole force of the Mexican warriors is in arms against you: and moreover, there is no good road thither, nor are provisions to be had.” Cortes embraced the ambassadors with much urbanity, and returned his thanks for the present, saying, that he was surprised to find the great Montezuma so variable in his mind. In regard to his offers of treasure for the emperor, he thanked him, and for what had been received, said he hoped to pay in future services; but submitted to him, how he could possibly turn back, when so near his royal residence, without taking that opportunity of paying his respects, and obeying his masters orders; and begged him also to consider, what opinion he would entertain of persons he had sent on similar business, should they act in the manner he required us to do. To his capital, our monarch expected we should go, and therefore it was useless to send any more such messages, for he must wait upon his Majesty, and deliver his message to him in person: and afterwards, if our remaining there was not agreeable, he would obey his orders, and return to the place from whence he came.

Having thus dispatched Montezuma’s ambassadors we continued our march. Our allies had informed us that Montezuma was to permit us to enter the city, and there put us all to death; this we well knew, and being like other mortals fond of our lives, it filled us with melancholy thoughts. Recommending our souls therefore to our Lord Jesus Christ, who had brought us through our past dangers, we proceeded, and halted at a place called Iztapalatengo, one half of the houses of

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which is, in the water, and the other half on firm ground, hard by a little ridge of hills, where there is now an inn.

Early in the morning, when we were on the point of marching, a centinel came to inform us, that a great number of Mexicans, richly dressed, were upon the road. Cortes therefore ordered us to return into our quarters, and at that instant four of the principal courtiers of Mexico arrived, and waiting on Cortes with great respect informed him, that Cacamatzin lord of Tezcuco, the nephew of the great Montezuma, was approaching, and requested that he would wait to receive him. Cacamatzin followed in the greatest pomp, carried in a magnificent litter adorned with green plumes, and enriched with jewels, set in the branched pillars of solid gold. He was borne by eight lords, who assisted him out of the litter, and swept the way by which he was to pass. When he came into the pretence of Cortes he said to him, “Malintzin, here am I and those lords, to attend you to your residence in our city, by order of the great Montezuma.” Cortes embraced the prince, and presented him with three jewels of that kind called margajitas, which are figured in different colours. We then set forward on the road to Mexico, which was crowded with multitudes of the natives, and arrived at the causeway of Iztapalapa, which leads to that capital. When we beheld the number of populous towns on the water and firm ground, and that broad causeway, running straight and level to the city, we Gould compare it to nothing but the enchanted scenes we had read of in Amadis of Gaul, from the great towers and temples, and other edifices of lime and stone which seemed to rise out of the water. To many of us it appeared doubtful whether we were asleep or awake; nor is the manner in which I express myself to be wondered at, for it must be considered, that never yet did man see, hear, or dream of any thing equal to the spectacle which appeared to our eyes on this day.

When we approached Iztapalapa, we were received by several great lords of that country, relations of Montezuma, who conducted us to our lodgings there, in palaces magnificently built of stone, and 

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the timber of which was cedar, with spacious courts, and apartments furnished with canopies of the finest cotton. After having contemplated these noble edifices we walked through the gardens, which were admirable to behold from the variety of beautiful and aromatic plants, and the numerous alleys filled with fruit trees, roses, and various flowers. Here was also a lake of the clearest water, which communicated with the grand lake of Mexico by a channel cut for the purpose, and capable of admitting the largest canoes. The whole was ornamented with works of art, painted, and admirably plaistered and whitened, and it was rendered more delightful by numbers of beautiful birds. When I beheld the scenes that were around me, I thought within myself that this was the garden of the world! This place, was at the time of which I am speaking, with one half of the houses in the water, and the other half on dry land; but all is destroyed, and that which was a lake is now a tract of fields of Indian corn, and so entirely altered that the natives themselves could hardly know it.