"Are we not brothers? So man and man should be:

But clay and clay differs in Dignity,

Whose dust is both alike."—SHAKESPEARE, Cymbeline.


"Indra hath helped his Aryan worshippers

In frays that win the Light of Heaven.

He gave to his Aryan men the godless, dusky race:

Righteously blazing he burns the malicious away."—Rig Veda, 1, 130, 8.


"Indra alone hath tamed the dusky races

And subdued them for the Aryans.—R.V., 6, 183.


"Yet, Indra, thou art for evermore

The common Lord of all alike."—Rig Veda, 8, 547.


"And to him who worships truly Indra gives

Many and matchless gifts—He who slew the Dragon.

He is to be found straightway by all

Who struggle prayerfully for the Light."—Rig Veda, 2, 19, 4.



WE have found, by a mass of concrete attested facts and other cumulative confirmatory evidence, that Civilization properly so-called is synonymous with Aryanization; and that it was first introduced into Britain in the Stone Age, about 2800 B.C., or earlier, by Hitto-Phœnician "Catti," or Early Gothic sea-merchants from the Levant engaged in the Tin, Bronze and Amber trade and industries, who were Aryans in Speech, Script and Race—tall, fair, broad-browed and long-headed. Of the leading clan of Aryans, they bore the patronymic of Barat or "Brit-on," and, settling on the island of Albion, conquering and civilizing the dusky aborigines therein, they gave their own patronymic to it, calling it "Barat-ana" or "Brit-ain" or "Land of the Barats or Brits."


There were several successive waves of immigration of this Aryan Catti-Barat civilizing stock from the coast of Asia Minor and Syria-Phœnicia by way of the Mediterranean into the British Isles; and the different sections of that Aryan civilizing race called themselves variously Muru or Martu ("Amorite"), Cymr, Somer or Cumber, Barat or Briton, Goth or Gad, Catti, Ceti, Cassi, Xat or Scot, or Sax or Sax-on.


Their descendants continued to be the ruling race therein until modern times, excepting the Roman period, though even then several sections continued to maintain their independence in Wales, Cumbria, Scotland and Ireland. The later invaders, Jutes, Angles, Saxons, Norse, Danes and Normans were merely kindred North Sea colonists of the same Aryan racial Catti or Gothic stock; while the minor immigrations of batches of Belgians and others from the Continent into South Britain, mentioned by Caesar, do not appear to have been racially Aryan. And we have seen that the fair round-heads of Germanic type of the East Coast and Midlands were also racially non-Aryan.


The Phœnician Catti or Gothic Aryan strain, derived from the first civilizers of Britain, although more or less mixed with aboriginal blood in the course of centuries, has nevertheless still survived in tolerable purity, as evidenced by the typically Aryan physique of great numbers of their descendants. And it constitutes the leading Aryan element in the present-day population of these isles, the mass and substratum of which, although now Aryanized in speech and customs, still remain preponderatingly of the non-Aryan physical type of the "Iberian" aborigines, and are racially neither Briton nor British, nor Anglo-Saxon, English, nor Scot, properly so-called.


It is desirable now to examine the extent of the intermixture of these Aryan and non-Aryan races in the British Isles, and its apparent and probable effects on the progress of British Civilization.


[p. 365] The Early Aryan Gothic invaders and civilizers are seen to have been essentially a race of highly-civilized ruling aristocrats; and relatively few in numbers in proportion to the aboriginal population of the country. In physical type they were of the Aryan race, that is to say, tall-statured, fair-complexioned, with blue or greyish eyes, broad-browed and long-headed, as opposed to the small-statured, dark-complexioned, narrow-browed, and long-headed Pictish "Iberian" aborigines of the Stone Age, and the fringe of somewhat superior-cultured Stone Age race of medium-sized, fair-complexioned, broad-browed, but round-headed Slavonic or Germanic Huns, the beaker-using men of the "Round Barrows," who came from the Baltic and Germany, who settled along the East Coast and in the Midlands; and whose descendants still exist there to a considerable extent at the present day in relatively pure form. {This "Germanic" round-headed type is still marked along the East Coast. Thus, whereas Glasgow has only 2 per cent. of round-heads, Edinburgh has 25 per cent. (Sir A. Keith, in address to Universities Club from Glasgow Herald, Nov. 25, 1921).} It is presumably the bones of these Early Aryan Gothic invaders which are found in the Stone Cists (as at Keiss) and in the Dolmens, and also to some extent in the Long Barrow graves, though in the latter alongside are some skulls of the narrow-browed and small-statured aboriginal type, with cephalic indices so low as 73.73, suggesting some racial intermixture even at that early period. {Prof. Parsons has recently shown that the Long Barrow race differs little in their skull form from the modern average inhabitants of London. —J.R.A.I., 1921, 55, etc. Most of the Long Barrow skulls figured by him have relatively broad brows; cp. Figs. on pp. 63 and 64 ib.} But it seems probable that the bodies of the Aryans were largely cremated, as Fire was a heavenly vehicle in the Sun-cult, and there are references in the Gothic Eddas, as well as in Homer, in regard to the Trojans, to the committing the bodies of heroes to the funeral pyre.


Anterior to the arrival of Brutus about 1103 B.C. the Catti-Phœnician occupation of Albion appears to have been only very partial and sporadic with little intermixing with the aborigines. These early "prehistoric" exploiters of the Tin, Copper, Gold and Lead mines, and jet and Amber trades, appear to have been floating colonies of merchant seamen and adventurers, who at first occupied strategic islets or peninsular seaports off-lying the chief native trade marts or mines, such as the Phœnicians usually selected for defensive purposes in most of their early colonies, on the model of Tyre, Sidon, Acre, Aradus, Carthage and Gades (or Cadiz). Of such a character are Ictis or St. Michael's Mount, Wight, Gower, the Aran isles off Galway, Dun Barton, Inch Keith, etc. Later they established themselves inland in the hinterland of their ports, as evidenced by their Stone Circles and other rude megalith monuments, which were chiefly, as we have seen, in the neighbourhood of their mines, or near their flint-factories for the manufacture of high-quality stone implements for their mines and miners, when Bronze was still too precious to spare. And these Early Phœnician pioneer exploiters of the mineral wealth of Albion do not appear to have attempted any systematic Aryanization or colonization of the country, or to have settled there with their wives and families to any considerable extent. What early civilization the aborigines of Albion then received was mainly through being employed in the mines and workshops of the Phœnicians.


Permanent settlement with systematic civilization and colonization with cultivation appears to have begun only with the arrival of Brutus and his Britons about 1103 B.C. They brought their wives and families with them. They were strictly monogamists, as was the Aryan custom. At first they appear to have lived apart from the aborigines in home towns and villages of their own by themselves, presumably from their exclusive racial instincts, or possibly in part for self-defence, being so few in numbers. This is evidenced by the great number of the earliest towns and ports bearing merely their own Aryan racial or tribal names. It is supported also by the British Chronicle tradition that Brutus "made choice of the citizens that were to inhabit" his first-founded city—London. The relationship and attitude of these highly-civilized Aryan invaders towards the primitive Stone Age aborigines of Alban or Britain must have been much of the same aloof kind as obtains at the present day in the contact between civilized Europeans and the primitive races in Africa, Asia and America. And the comparative fewness of these ruling Aryans to the mass of the indigenous population may perhaps be compared to the few handfuls of British civil servants who suffice nowadays to rule large dependencies of the British Empire.


Intermarriage of the Aryans with the non-Aryan uncivilized primitive people of a different colour and inferior mentality was naturally repugnant to the racial instinct. And even marriage with an aboriginal princess was viewed with disfavour. Thus we have Virgil lamenting in regard to the re-marriage of Æneas, the great-grandfather of the Aryan king Brutus, with a native princess in his Italian exile:


"An alien bride is the Trojan's bane once more." {Æneid, 6, 94.}


As time went on, however, and the Aryans multiplied, and in the meantime the aborigines had gradually been raised in the scale of civilization by passing through the mill of Aryanization in speech, customs and habits of life, a certain amount of intermarriage would doubtless begin to take place. Especially was this likely to happen under the usual policy of the Hitto-Phœnician statesmen, who early recognized that the stability of the state depended largely on its being based upon Nationality. Hence in their colonies, as seen in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the Levant, Ancient Greece, etc., they were in the habit in their city-states of welding together the diverse racial and tribal units of a region into one Nation, united by the bonds forged by a common Aryan Speech, and by living together under the same Aryan Laws, with equal rights of citizenship and a common patriotism. For the Hitto-Phœnicians were the founders of Free Institutions and Representative Government. {Details Aryan Origins.}


With the growth of democracy such commingling of racial blood would tend to become still more common. And the opening up of freer communications with the interior by arterial roads and latterly, in modern times, by rail, and the gravitation of the rural population to the towns with the rise of cosmopolitan feeling has broken down the racial barrier to a great extent, and completed the fusion more or less of the diverse races. And all memory of the original sharp ancestral distinction between the superior and civilizing Aryan ruling race and the inferior non-Aryan indigenous race has now become more or less completely forgotten, even by the relatively pure Aryan element which has remained least affected by such intermarriages. And the outstanding differences in physique resulting from this intermixture exhibited amongst the mixed race of the present day, in respect to stature, complexion, colour of hair and eyes, and shape of head and face, are generally now regarded as merely curious, fortuitous or accidental personal peculiarities, although obviously more or less hereditary.


As a result of this more or less free intermixture of non-Aryan blood with the Aryan, operating through many centuries, there is now, perhaps, no such thing as an absolutely pure-blooded Aryan left in the British Isles. Yet in spite of the free mingling that has taken place, it must be evident even to the casual observer that there still exists at the present day, a considerable proportion. of the population in the British Isles which is relatively pure-blooded Aryan in physical type, just as the round-headed Stone Age Germanic type has still survived in their original location along the East Coast in relatively pure form. {See footnote, p. 365.}


Tending to conserve the Aryan type, by restraining free intermixture with other races, is the conscious or subconscious racial instinct which has been variously called "race pride," "race prejudice" or "race antipathy," as has been shown by Sir Arthur Keith and other anthropologists. These observers remark that this feeling still exists to the present day in the British Isles, and is exhibited as between the fair Lowland Scots and the dark or "Celtic" Highlanders, between fair Irish and the dark "Iberian" Hibernian "Celts," and between the fair Cymri and the dark Welsh and Devon and Cornish "Celts."


Another factor which tends to conserve the Aryan type appears to be the remarkable provision of Nature for securing "the survival of the fittest," by which she refuses to lose the painstaking progress made through long evolution towards a higher type by chance interference with her machinery, or by diluting her products. It has been found that the progeny of a marriage between two races of different physical types and head-form are not the mere mean or average between the two parent types, but belong to one or other of the separate parent (or grandparent) types as regards head and brain formation, {Mere colouration or pigmentation—the colour of the skin, hair and eyes—on the other hand, are immediately altered by inter-marriage in a more or less mechanical ratio, in accordance with the scale in Mendel's laws of heredity.} the different racial head-forms tending to refuse to mix, like oil and water. Thus the intermarriage of a long-head and a round-head usually results in one or other of the children being long-headed, and another round-headed, like one or other of their parents, and not an intermediate type of head. "The result was in many cases not a mixture, as if we mix red and white wine, but it was often a manifest reversion to the original types. In this way, good old types, once fixed by long inbreeding, do not necessarily get lost by intermarriage, but often return with astonishing energy." {Prof. F. v. Luschan, The Early Inhabitants of Western Asia, Jour. Royal Anthrop. Instit., 1911, 239.}


In this way the subsequent intermarriage of individuals of a relatively pure Aryan type would tend to enhance and fix the predominance of the Aryan blood strain introduced into Britain by the Britons, with all the superior intellectual endowments for progress which the Aryan type stands for.


There is no need in these days to argue against the idea advocated by Freeman and Green that the Britons were totally exterminated by the Anglo-Saxons. There is no historical evidence whatsoever to show or even suggest that the Anglo-Saxons—fierce pagans though they were, and the destroyers of Christianity amongst the Britons in the area they invaded—were such inhuman butchers as to massacre wholesale the men, women and children [p. 370] in Britain or in South Britain, surpassing in brutality even the Turkish massacres of the Armenians. Not only is there no historical reference to any such atrocious massacre or even minor massacres; {See N.P.E., 261, etc.; 281, etc.} but on the contrary we have, so late as 685 A.D., or over two centuries after the Anglo-Saxon invasion, a Briton king, Cadwalla, ruling over the Anglo-Saxons in the kingdom of Wessex, {Ib., 278; and see G.C., 12, 2. He appears to be the "Cædwalla" of Ethelwerd's Chronicle, Giles Old English Chronicles, 14.} the chief kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons in England. It is now recognized that the South-eastern Britons submitted to their defeat by the Anglo-Saxon forces, just as their Briton ancestors had submitted to their defeat by the Roman forces, and as the Anglo-Saxons themselves with their subject Britons latterly submitted to their final defeat by the Normans; whilst, on the other hand, the more independent Britons of the Western half of Britain continued to maintain their independence against the Anglo-Saxons more or less throughout the whole period of the Anglo-Saxon domination of the Eastern half of England. And the Britons in Scotland, north of Northumbria, although divided amongst themselves, successfully maintained their entire independence under their own Briton rulers, not only against the Anglo-Saxons, but against the conquerors of the latter, the Normans. And we have seen that the so-called "Anglo-Saxon" language of England is neither Angle nor Saxon, but rather Briton or British Gothic.


Similarly, in the Norman invasion, which put an end to Anglo-Saxon rule, there was no extermination of either the Britons or Anglo-Saxons. The Nor-mans or North-men were also a branch of the Aryan Barat Goths or Catti, who merely happened to be frenchified in dialect, by a short sojourn in Normandy; but they retained their ecclesiastic architecture of Gothic type, They also were soon absorbed by the Britons in both blood and speech, adding a few French idioms to the Briton stock of speech now known as "English." But as the English historian Palgrave truly says:—"Britons, Anglo-Saxons, Danes and Normans were all relations: however hostile, they were all kinsmen, shedding kindred blood." {Sir F. Palgrave, English Commonwealth, 1, 35.}


It is thus evident that the terms Briton, British, English, Scot, Cymri, Welsh or Irish in their present-day use have largely lost their racial sense and are now used mainly in their national sense. Thus a great proportion of those who proudly call themselves "English" have little or no Angle or Saxon blood in their veins, and are not strictly entitled to call themselves "English" at all. And similarly with Scot, Cymri and British properly so-called: a person born in Scotland even of remote native ancestry is not necessarily of the Scot race properly so-called; but is more often than not of the non-Aryan physical type of the Pict or "Celt." Yet, although so composite in race, the British nation, through its insularity, is even less heterogeneous in composition than most of the many continental countries which have secured or clamour for self-determination on "racial" grounds, an idea derived from the spread of Western Aryan "Nationalism."


The aggregate Aryan racial element in the population of the British Isles appears to be considerably smaller than what has hitherto been assumed, owing to the original Aryan immigrant stock having been so relatively small in proportion to the main body of the aboriginal population, with their greater prolificness. Yet it is now widely distributed in its relatively pure individual strain, and not confined to one particular class in society. Although the Aryans originally formed the aristocracy of the British Isles, the Aryan type, as evidenced by the Aryan physique and confirmed by Aryan patronymics, appears to be found nowadays more frequent in the ranks of the middle-class society. {As regards Colour, Prof. Parsons finds, on revising and supplementing Beddoe's statistics, that in the modern population of Britain "the upper classes [including the middle class] have an altogether lower index of nigrescence than the lower" (J.R.A.I., 1920, 182)—that is to say, the upper and middle classes are fairer than the lower. Regarding Red Hair, which so frequently accompanies a fair and freckled skin and blue or light eyes, he finds it "is more common in the upper [including middle] than in the lower classes." (ib., 182).}


Certainly the existing aristocracy, which has been so largely recruited in modern times from miscellaneous party politicians and successful capitalists, has not only no monopoly of the Aryan type, but is to an appreciable extent obviously of the non-Aryan type—which is, perhaps, also to be explained in part by the fact that the Aryan rulers were in the habit of often confirming aboriginal chiefs in their chieftainship subject to Aryan suzerainty. And not a few individuals of this relatively pure Aryan physique are also to be seen amongst what are called "the Lower Classes," and may possibly explain to some extent the fact that whatever the general quality of the "Lower Classes" may be, it has always furnished capable candidates for vacancies in the "Upper."


In regard to the general topographical distribution of this relatively pure Aryan type in Britain, comparisons on such a matter may seem somewhat of the proverbially invidious kind. But, as we have seen that the Anglo-Saxons and Britons are of the same racial stock, and that both the Cymri and Scots are Britons, it is merely a question as to the facts in regard to the relative survival and distribution of the Aryan. physical type in the kingdom. This type is admittedly found by observation and statistics in greater proportion to the general population to the north of the Tweed than to the south. Even as regards mere relative tallness, which is one of the associated Aryan traits, Scotland heads the list as containing the highest average stature in Europe, {D.R.M., 584.} even when its Aryan average is much reduced by including the non-Aryan element which forms the main body of its population. The relatively high proportion of the Aryan type in Scotland is, perhaps, owing to that country having been apparently a refuge for a considerable proportion of the more independent Briton Catti in order to escape the Roman domination, as has been already referred to. It may also be that it is on account of Scotland being in this way endowed with an extra reserve of the relatively purer Aryan stock of the old Aryan ruling race, that the saying has arisen that the Scots appropriate a disproportionate share in the administrative positions all the world over, and that when they cross the Tweed to the southern part of the land of their Catti ancestors, they are sometimes petulantly stigmatized there as "interlopers," from the time of Johnson downwards.


In Ireland the Aryan type appears to be especially numerous in Ulster, though found all over Erin or the ancient "Scotia," where the great bulk of the population is of the Iberian "Celtic" type. It thus would seem that the unhappy Irish Question is largely a matter of race antagonism or race war between different racial elements with different inherited psychology and temperaments and holding different ideals and outlooks on Life, even when nurtured in and leavened by Aryan Civilization.


And similarly the modern industrial and political unrest among the masses, with bitter strife between Capital and Labour and between Thrift and Unthrift, and the growth of crude revolutionary notions against the established order of Civilization, with proposals not unfrequently antagonistic to the cherished Aryan tradition of Freedom, and destructive of the foundations of that Civilization which has raised the masses of the people from the misery of the Stone Age "herd" into the material and social blessings which they now enjoy, are obviously to a considerable extent the result of the deep-seated race antagonism still surviving amongst the conflictingly diverse racial elements comprised within the British nation. And the like explanation may be given of the corresponding industrial unrest in other Aryanized countries.


In view of the Early Aryans having been the originators of the Higher Civilization, which has raised mankind to a higher plane of life, and having been at the same time the chief agents in the Propagation and Progress of Civilization it would be interesting to ascertain in what proportion the Aryan physique is present in the modern leaders of our Nation—in the spheres of government, science, industry, capital and labour and in "socialism."


Returning to the question of the physical and mental results of the mixing of races, we find that, when the process continues to go on for a prolonged period, the ultimate effect is to produce a mixed or hybrid race, which is of quite a different type from either parent race. This is what is now taking place to a considerable extent in the British Isles. Thus Sir Arthur Keith says:—


"A marriage across a racial frontier gives rise to an offspring so different from both parent races that it cannot be naturally grouped with either the one or the other." {Sir A. Keith, Nationality and Race, 1919, 9.}


This evolution of a mixed or hybrid race is well seen in the Basque race of the Biscay regions, a people who have been affiliated to the Picts, as we have seen, and among whom the process of mixing has been going on for a longer period than in Britain. The Basques occupy the country between the dark, long- and narrow-headed and long-faced Iberians of Spain—the primitive Pictish type—on the one side, and the fair, broad- or round-headed and round-faced "Celts" of Gaul on the other side. As the produce of the prolonged intermixing of these two adjoining races, we have got a mixed or intermediate form of head and face. In this mixed race, the head is somewhat broader than in the Iberian type, with broader brow, yet retaining the narrow lower part of the Iberian face. This results in a wedge-shaped face with broad brow and narrow chin.


It is a somewhat similar mixed race which is now arising in Britain. A wedge-shaped face identical to that of the Basque race, with expanded frontal lobes of the brain and roundish head, is resulting from the prolonged crossing between the indigenous Pictish or Iberian race with the round-headed non-Aryan Germanic or Hun stock of the East Coast and Midlands, which appears to have been numerically almost as strong as the original Aryan stock in Britain. On the other hand, the prolonged intermixture of the Aryan element with the Pictish which forms the mass of the population, tends to produce the same wedge-shaped face with broad brow, though the resultant cranial form, owing to both of these races being long-headed, is also long-headed. This apparently accounts for the growing tendency to an "elongation" of the somewhat roundish [p. 375] face of the Aryan type which has been remarked by Sir Arthur Keith. And the relative stature of many of the individuals of the darker mixed race tends to become increased, and to give in the case of the admixture with the Alpine or "Germanic" type a tallish and relatively round-headed dark "Celtic" type in some cases.


{Dr. Beddoe describes the result reached by this mixing of types at the period of the Roman occupation as in the skulls of the Romano-British interments. "These skulls are intermediate in length and breadth between the long-barrow and the round-barrow forms; they have the prominent occiput [back of head] of the former with some degree of the parietal dilatation [round- or broad-headedness] of the latter . . . . This character belongs to neither of the other types but seems to me a probable result of their partial fusion." (B.R.B., 18). For a much later period, comprising one or two centuries past, a large series of skulls from an old graveyard on the Celtic-speaking borderland at Glasgow has recently been analysed by Prof. T. H. Bryce and Dr. J. Young and discloses amongst other things the broader brow and head of this mixed racial type in Scotland. See Trans. R.S. Edin., 1911.}


On the mental character and psychology and temperamental predispositions of this new mixed race, the effect of this fusion of the diverse racial blood, with broadening of the Pictish brain, is not inconsiderable. It should be expected to bridge over to some extent and minimize the latent racial antagonisms between the respective parent races. This interbreeding is supposed to unite as compensatory benefits certain desirable temperamental traits which are possessed by one or other of the parent races and are absent in the other. Thus the "Celtic" or Pictish race is usually credited with being passionate and the sole possessor of that emotional trait popularly called "Celtic fire," though also possessing fatalistic traits tending to retard progress both of which are alleged to be more or less absent in the Aryan type.


The psychological and temperamental contrast between the "Celtic," or Keltic, and the Aryan races in Britain has been thus summarized by a leading anthropologist:—


"The Kelt is still a Kelt, mercurial, passionate, vehement, impulsive, more courteous than sincere voluble or eloquent, fanciful if not imaginative, quick-witted and brilliant rather than profound, elated with success, but easily depressed, hence lacking in steadfastness."


The Aryan type, according to the same authority, still remains "stolid and solid, outwardly abrupt, but warm-hearted and true, haughty and even overbearing through an innate sense of superiority, yet at heart sympathetic and always just, hence a ruler of men; seemingly dull or slow, yet pre-eminent in the realms of philosophy and imagination (Newton and Shakespeare)." {K.M., 532.}


The advantages of race mixture are advocated by many recent psychologists. Galton and Havelock Ellis have brought forward a variety of evidence, tending to show that great Englishmen are born on the borderland between the old Briton and Saxon settlements, and were presumably the result of "race mixture." But this does not appear to be really a case of race mixture, as the Britons and Saxons are of the same race, whilst the Pictish and "Celtic" elements are widely diffused throughout the whole land.


It remains to be seen whether the higher outstanding Aryan capacity for ruling, and the Aryan genius for constructive progress in science, philosophy, and the Higher Civilization, and the high moral fibre of the Aryan, suffer any relaxation in the new mixed race; and whether the grand old Aryan type is dethroned, swamped and become extinct. This is a problem for the Eugenists.


In the achievement and preservation and progress of the Higher Civilization there is to be noted the supreme prominence which the Aryan founders of Civilization placed upon the indispensableness of the Religion of the One and Only Universal Father-god as the corner stone in the fabric of the Higher Civilization, as seen evidenced everywhere in the profusion of their magnificent Aryan votive religious monuments and inscriptions from the earliest period, and in their sacred hymns, as cited in the heading and in previous chapters. This practical necessity for the Higher Aryan Religion, with its exalted. ethics, in the preservation and progress of Civilization is altogether ignored by Socialists, Communists and Anarchists in modern times. Our newly-found fresh light on the Origin of Civilization and on the Aryan men and supermen of genius who founded it and discovered the true paths for its future progress, discloses more clearly even than before the necessity for the Higher Religion occupying a foremost place in Civilization; and that the short-sighted godless attempts at "government" by the French and other revolutionists and the Bolsheviks were and are foredoomed to failure, if Civilization itself is not to be utterly destroyed.


Here, it is also to be noted that the racial titles of "Briton" and "British" apply also equally to several of our colonies, not excepting that former great colony of Britain across the Atlantic, the great Western republic, severed from its Motherland by the intolerable tyranny and feudal despotism rampant under George III. The United States is essentially British in its origin and original colonists, and still remains "British" in its fundamental constitution, civilization and language. Although now such a vastly composite nation, through the fusion of Briton, Norse and German, Latin and Slav, it is to be remembered that, besides being founded by British colonists and organized by the Englishman George Washington, the stream of emigration which flowed into the States down to the middle seventies of last century was almost entirely British and Scandinavian, with the predominating element British. The essential unity of the two kindred Aryanized nations, the British and the "American," was ably expressed by the great American statesman, the U.S. ambassador Mr. Page, when he said:


"Our standards of character and of honour and of duty are your standards; and life and freedom have the same meaning with us that they have with you. These are the essential things, and in this we have always been one."


It therefore behoves these two of the greatest of the Aryanized kindred nations in the world to translate their union of Thought into union of Action, in working together for the preservation and progress of the Higher Civilization of the Aryans, for the welfare of the World, and as a bounden duty which they owe their immortal ancestors, from whom they have inherited the priceless boon of British Civilization, the virile Aryan Brito-Phœnicians.


We thus find that in the complex welter of mixed races which has arisen in Britain through long centuries of more or less intermarriage of its Aryan civilizers with the aborigines and the East Coast Germanic race, there still exists here, and in our colonies, a considerable element of the relatively pure Aryan racial stock representative of that originally introduced into Britain by the world-civilizing Aryan Phœnicians. And this Aryan stock, descended from the original Gothic civilizers of Britain, still appears to form the backbone of the social, economic, industrial and political anatomy of the State; and it seems to hold out the best promise for the progress, efficiency and happiness of the British Nation and British Commonwealth for the Future.



FIG. 73.—Early Bronze-Age Briton button-amulet Cross.

From barrow grave at Rudstone, Yorks.


(After Greenwell. Brit. Barrows, 54.)

It is of jet, with eyelet on under surface for attachment.